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Author Guidelines

SECTION I - Manuscript preparation

Sociobiology provides free of cost publication for authors and open access for readers. We kindly ask you to have in mind that we count on voluntary work of editors and a small paid staff that cannot waste costly and precious time fixing formatting and typeset inconsistencies generated by non obedience to Authors Guidelines. Failure in following these guidelines can result in rejection of submissions.

Submmiting a manuscript that follows authors guidelines is an elementary demonstration of appreciation to the journal and to colaborative, open access publication philosophy.

1- Manuscript file formatting

All manuscripts submitted to Sociobiology must be written in English, with clarity and readability in mind. Manuscripts are subject to editing to ensure conformity to editorial standards and journal style.

  • Submit manuscript as an MS Word or RTF file with a page size Letter, 8.5 x 11".
  • Use continuous line numbering on all pages of your manuscript.
  • Type all as double-spaced, with 1-inch margins, and do not right justify text.
  • Use the font Times (New) Roman with a size of 12 point.
  • Left-justify the title, author line, affiliation lines, subheadings, text, and References Cited.
  • Insert tabs, not spaces, for paragraph indents.
  • Use italicization only to indicate scientific names (including viruses), symbols or variables, and words that are defined.
  • Use quotation marks for quoted material only.
  • Use American English spelling throughout and follow Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed., for guidance on spelling.
  • Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page.
  • Lines in the manuscript must be numbered.
  • Begin each of the following on a separate page and arrange in the following order: title page, abstract and key words (three to six words), manuscript text, acknowledgments, references cited, footnotes, tables, figure legends, and figures.
  • Type all captions on a separate page and put each figure and table on a separate page.
  • Make sure the file size (in Word, Libre Office or TRF format) does not exceed 4MB. This is the maximum upload file size in the OJS setup. If the manuscript is larger than that due to figures of high resolution, leave only figure legends in the manuscript file. Prepare figures in JPG or GIF format with size up to 2MB and upload individual figures as supplementary files. During the upload of supplementary files, in step 4, name the files with titles corresponding to the number of figures in the manuscript text. Check the option "Present supplementary files to reviewers". 
  • The sequence to correctly upload files in steps 2 (original article) and 4 (supplementary files) of the electronic submission is to choose the file (OJS will access your File Manager program), to click the Upload button, and then click the button "Save and continue". Upload as many supplementary files as needed repeating this sequence. After you are finished with the uploads, click "Save and continue". You will reach stpe 5 "Confirmation". Click the button "Finish Submission".

Please see these video tutorials for extra guidance on the submission process:

Registering as a user, if you are not yet registered in our electronic submission system,

Submitting a manuscript


2- Manuscript Preparation Instructions

2.1- Front page

Please strictly obey the sequence below.


a) Running title, maximum of 60 characters (including letters, punctuation, and spaces between words)

b) Manuscript type ("article", "review", "short note")

c) Title: concise and clearly identifying the connection between the main idea and the variables or scientific problem discussed in the paper. Capitalize first letters of each word, except for prepositions (at, by, with, from,  and, to).

d) Author(s) name(s) should be center-justified below the title using small capital letters. Only initials of the first and middle names of authors shall be provided, followed by the family names in full. Names of different authors are separated by commas, without the use of "and' or "&' (Examples: RJ GUPTA; LG SIMONS, F NIELSEN, SB KAZINSKY)

e) Affiliation, containing: institution, town  and country. Do not provide full postal address.

f) Keywords: provide a maximum of 6 keywords. Do not repeat words from the title here.

g) Corresponding author: provided full postal address plus email.


2.2 - Page 2 – Abstract

The abstract must be easy to understand and not require reference to the body of the article. Please make sure the main contribution of the paper is presented clearly in the abstract. The text must not contain any abbreviations or statistical details. Type ABSTRACT followed by a hyphen and the text. The abstract must be one-paragraph long and not exceed 250 words.


2.3 - Main Text

Introduction - Sociobiology strongly recommends to make explicit here the hypothesis being tested.

Material and Methods - This section must provide enough information for the research to be replicated. Please include the statistical design and methods, if necessary, the name and version of the software used for analysis.

Results - mean values must be followed by the mean standard error and the number of observations. Units of measurement must be separated from the value by a blank space (e.g., 10 cm, 25 kg/m). Present p-values in lower case (e.g., p < 0.05). For extra guidance on statistics and measures notation see:


Discussion -  here  it is strongly recommended that you focus on how the results contribute to the advancement of the scientific knowledge in the specific subject area, and preferably, beyond it. Make sure you express clearly whether or not the working hypothesis was accepted and what analisys give support its acceptance or refutation.

Acknowledgments - The text must be concise and contain the recognition to people first (including "anonymous referees"), and then institutions and/or sponsors.

References - Its mandatory to include DOI numbers if available for the cited paper. Most articles published in the 2000's have a DOI number. Effective on August of 2016, journal names must be types in full (not abbreviated) in all references.

A maximum number of 50 references is acceptable (except for Reviews).

Under the section title, type the references, in alphabetical order, one per paragraph, with no space between them.

The authors’ family names are typed first in full, followed by capital initials, followed by period.

Use a comma to separate the names of authors.

Add the reference year after the authors' family name, between parentheses. Journal names in full.

Do not cite monographs, partial research reports, abstracts of papers presented at scientific meetings, dissertations, theses, and extension materials.

Examples of reference style:


Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990). The Ants. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 732 p

Chapter or article in an edited book

Cushman, J.H. & Addicott, J.F. (1991). Conditional interactions in ant-plant-herbivore mutualisms. In C.R. Huxley & D.F. Cutler (Eds.), Ant-plant interactions (pp. 92-103). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

References retrieved from web address

Bolton, B. (2011). Catalogue of species-group taxa. (accessed date:  1 August, 2016).

Jounal article

Matsuura, K., Himuro, C., Yokoi, T., Yamamoto, Y., Vargo, E. L. & Keller, L. (2010). Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107: 12963-12968. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1004675107

The issue number should be indicated only if each issue of a journal begins on page 1.

Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of an article title and subtitle, and any proper nouns.

Capitalise the first letter of every main word in the journal title (reminder: journal title in full).

Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if available

Journal article, if published only online

Liu, N., Cheng, D.M., Xu, H.H. & Zhang, Z.X. (2011). Behavioral and Lethal Effects of α-terthienyl on the Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA). Chinese Agricultural Science, 44: 4815-4822. Retrived from:

Group or organisation as author

Organisation Name. (Year). Details of the work as appropriate to a printed or electronic form.


Authors contribution

Please clearly present each co-authors' contribution to the study. As a matter of pursuing ethics standards in scientific publication, Sociobiology follows the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for definition of authorship and contributorship.


Please note that acquisition of funding or the provision of space, providing published data or materials, or general supervision of the research group alone does not justify authorship.

Preparation of Tables

Tables must be placed separately, one per page, after the References section. Please number tables consecutively with Arabic numbers at the same order they are referred to in the text. Footnotes must have call numbers. Use the word "Table" in full in the text (example: Table 1).

Be careful on correctly aligning variables and respective values in columns and lines.

Example of a table title:

Table 1. Frequency of the four types of ovaries within the colonies of Angiopolibia pallens.


Preparation of figures

Insert the list of figures after the tables. Use the abbreviation "Fig" in the titles and in the text (such as Fig 3). In order to easy the editing work and produce a neat layout for the articles, please prepare the figure files according to the following guidelines:

Prepare figures in TIF format, with at least 300 dpi of resolution. It is the better format for the quality of your published work.  However, exceptions to this format can be discussed with editors if necessary. 

In the editing process small figures will be set as a one column object (Sociobiology articles are edited in two columns layout). Please produce small figures with a width size of 86.5 mm, while the height can be up to 210 mm.

In the editing process large figures will be set as an object placed over two columns. Please produce large figures with a width size of a maximum of 179 mm, while the height can vary up to 85 mm for a one third page, 120 mm for a half page or 185 mm for a two third page figure.

Please use appropriate font size for axis or box legends and values in order to assure good resolution for text in the figures. If axis or box legends are too extensive and require small font size for full typing, create abbreviations for the variables and refer to the variables full text as figure foot notes. A font size between 9 and 12 pt for the fonts Times New Roman or Calibri can yield a good resolution for figure text (followed the width and heights suggested above).


3- In-text Citations

Scientific names

Write the scientific names in full, followed by the author's family name, when they are first mentioned in the Abstract as well as in the body of the text, e.g.: Polistes canadensis (L.). Use the abbreviated generic name (e.g.: P. canadensis) in the rest of the manuscript, except in tables and figures, where the species name shall be typed in full.


One author

When you refer to a single author, include the author's family name and year of publication, using one of the forms shown here.

Ginsberg (2005) argues that local diversity of bees is driven by species selection from a regional diversity pool. or

Local diversity of bees is driven by species selection from a regional diversity pool (Ginsberg, 2005).


Multiple authors

For two authors, include the family names of both authors and year.

According to Smith and Velasquez (2009) chaparrals are a source of endemism for ants in the Venezuelan Andes. or

Chaparrals are a source of endemism for ants in the Venezuelan Andes (Smith & Velazquez, 2009).

Use 'and' when family names are outside parentheses; use '&' when family names are inside parentheses.

In the case of three or more authors, cite first authors’ family name, plus 'et al.' and the year.


Multiple references

If more than one reference has to be cited, follow the chronological order of publication, separated with semicolons (for example: Xia & Liu, 1998; Saravanah, 2003; Balestreri, 2006; Ustachenko et al., 2010). Use 'and' when family names are outside parentheses; use '&' when family names are inside parentheses.


Secondary source

Sociobiology strongly recommends to not use secondary source (i.e., citations refering to one author (secondary) who cites another (primary)).


Article or chapter in an edited book

If a chapter or article written by a contributor author to an edited book has to be cited, acknowledge the author of the chapter or article. This author is cited in text (that is, in the body of the paper) in the same way as for one or more authors.


Group or organisation as author

Whenever the author is a government agency, association, corporate body or the like, which has a familiar or easily understandable acronym, it is cited as follows:

The reduction of airborn polluting particles in Cleveland resulted in the increase of bee species richness in park areas in the 1990’s (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2006).

Note: The entry in the reference list is under Environmental Protection Agency.


Personal communication

Personal communications are understood as letters, e-mails, personal interviews, telephone conversations and the like. They must be in text only and are not included in a reference list.

J. Ahmed (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated …

… (L. Stainer, Senior Researcher, Social Insects Study Centre, personal communication, June 4, 2009)


4 - Scientific Notes

Manuscripts of anecdotal nature, and/or that merely report new geographic occurrences, trophic interactions, records of species or host associations to new localities in geographical regions that they are already known, will not be accepted.  Short notes must report more elaborated work that incorporates the same aspects required for full articles (biology, ecology, genetics, behavior, reproductive biology, caste studies, etc.).

Scientific notes should be prepared as a single text and references. Do not include subtitles (Introduction, Material and Methods, and Results and Discussion). The abstract must have up to 150 words and the text no longer than 1,000 words. Figures or tables can be included if highly necessary, summing up to 3 objects (Figures + Tables) at a maximum.


5- Reviews

Extensive interpretative or evaluative articles on current topics related to the biology of social arthropods, can be published upon invitation by the Associate Editors. The Editorial Board is not responsible for the opinions expressed in the articles (Scientific notes, research articles, and reviews).


SECTION II - Important reminders on submission process


6 - Fill in Metadata Forms

It is important to fill in all metadata forms with an asterisc (mandatory fields) during the five steps of the submission process. Additionally, please include metadata on all authors that appear in the manuscript. The first field that appears can be filled in with submitter metadata, and by clicking the button "Add author" new forms will appear for us much authors as needed. Author metadata is important for abstracting and indexing purposes. Remember that in modern days indexing agencies have online data harvesters. Any omission or lack of accuracy in authors, disciplines and keywords metadata can affect the visibility of authors work.


7 - List of Potential reviewers

Put together a list of four potential referees that you will inform in the text box "Comments to the Editor" during the electronic submission process. In the list you must provide the complete name, Institutional Affiliation, Country, e-mail address and three key words that best describe the area of expertise of each potential referee.

At least two referees must be from countries different from the author's country of origin.


8 - Journal Access

Accepted manuscripts will be published free of charges and fees, reprints will not be provided. The authors and the general public will have full online access to PDF files of all published articles. Sociobiology publishes under Creative Commons Attribution License.


Further Information:

Evandro do Nascimento Silva
Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana
Av. Transnordestina s/n Novo Horizonte
Feira de Santana – BA Brazil


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided on Comments to the Editor).
  2. The file is in Microsoft Word, LibreOffice or RTF document file format.
  3. URLs and/or DOI numbers for the cited references are provided in the "References" section whenever possible. THE ABSENCE OF DOIs CAN RESULT IN IMMEDIATE REJECTION OF SUBMISSION.
  4. Tables and pictures are inserted at the end of the Microsoft Word, LibreOffice or RTF file. Furthermore, pictures for definitive editing are prepared in separate .jpg or .gif files with at least 300 dpi resolution.
  5. All in-tex citations have their corresponding references listed in the reference section. References are in accordance with Author's Guidelines. REFERENCES OUT OF REQUIRED FORMAT CAN RESULT IN IMMEDIATE REJECTION OF SUBMISSIONS.
  6. You have put together a list of four potential referees (with a PhD or Doctor of Science degree) that you will inform in the text box "Comments to the Editor". In the list you have the complete name, Institutional Afiliation, Country, e-mail address and three key words that best decribe the area of expertise of each potential referee. At least two referees must be from countries different from the author's country of origin.

Copyright Notice

Sociobiology is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

    1. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

  1. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


Privacy Statement

Names and adresses informed in this journal will be used solely for the purpose of managing submissions, and will not be available to third parties.