Relative occurrence of the family Kalotermitidae (Isoptera) under different termite sampling methods

Rudolf H Scheffrahn, James A Chase, John R. Mangold, Henry H Hochmair

Abstract


The termite family Kalotermitidae constitutes a wood-nesting termite family that accounts for about 15% of all extant termite species. In recent decades, field studies have been carried out to assess termite diversity in various wooded habitats and geographic locations. Three sampling methods have been favored expert, transect, and alate light-trap surveys. Expert collecting is not spatially quantifiable but relies on field personnel to recognize and sample termite niches. The transect method aims to standardize and quantify termite abundance and diversity. Light trapping is a passive method for sampling nocturnal alate flights. We compared our expert survey results and results of published sampling methods for their proportional yields of kalotermitid versus non-kalotermitid encounters. Using an odds ratio statistic, we found that worldwide, there is about a 50.6-fold greater likelihood of encountering a kalotermitid sample versus a non-kalotermitid using the expert survey method and a 15.3-fold greater likelihood using alate trapping than using the transect method. There is about a 3.3 -fold greater likelihood of collecting a kalotermitid specimen versus a non-kalotermitid sample using the expert survey method than using the alate trap method. Transect studies in which only termite species diversity was reported gave similar low Kalotermitidae yields. We propose that multiple biases in sampling methodology include tools, time constraints, habitat type, geographical location, topographical conditions, and human traits account for the divergent outcomes in sampling the abundance and diversity of Kalotermitidae compared to other termite families.


Keywords


Expert survey; transect survey; alate trap survey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackerman, I. L., Constantino, R., Gauch Jr., H. G., Lehmann, J., Riha, S. J., & Fernandes, E. (2009). Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) species composition in a primary rain forest and agroforests in central Amazonia. Biotropica, 412: 226-233. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00479.x

Ackerman, I. L., Teixeira, W. G., Riha, S. J., Lehmann, J., & Fernandes, E. C. (2007). The impact of mound-building termites on surface soil properties in a secondary forest of central Amazonia. Applied Soil Ecology, 37: 267-276. doi: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.08.005

Alves, W. D. F., Mota, A. S., De Lima, R. A. A., Bellezoni, R., & Vasconcellos, A. (2011). Termites as bioindicators of habitat quality in the caatinga, Brazil: is there agreement between structural habitat variables and the sampled assemblages? Neotropical Entomology, 40: 39-46. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100006

Almeida, C. S., Cristaldo, P. F., Florencio, D. F., Ribeiro, E. J. M., Cruz, N. G., Silva, E. A., Costa, D. A. & Araújo, A. P. A. (2017). The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 77: 519-526. doi: 10.1590/s1519-6984.17815

Araújo, A. P. A., Galbiati, C., & DeSouza, O. (2007). Neotropical termite species (Isoptera) richness declining as resource amount rises: Food or enemy-free space constraints? Sociobiology, 49: 93-106.

Bandeira, A. G., Vasconcellos, A., Silva, M. P., & Constantino, R. (2003). Effects of habitat disturbance on the termite fauna in a highland humid forest in the Caatinga domain, Brazil. Sociobiology, 421: 117-128.

Banks, N., & Snyder, T.E. (1920). A revision of the Nearctic termites (Banks), with notes on the biology and distribution of termites [Snyder]. United States National Museum Bulletin 108: 1–228 + 35 pls.

Basset, Y., Barrios, H., Ramirez, J.A., Lopez Y., Coronado J., Perez, F., Arizala, S., Bobadilla, R., & Leponce, M. (2017). Contrasting the distribution of butterflies and termites in plantations and tropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 151-176. doi: 10.1007/s10531-016-1231-6

Bik, H. M. (2017). Let’s rise up to unite taxonomy and technology. PLoS biology, 15: e2002231. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2002231

Bourguignon, T., Leponce, M., & Roisin, Y. (2009). Insights into the termite assemblage of a neotropical rainforest from the spatio‐temporal distribution of flying alates. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 23: 153-162. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2009.00055.x

Bourguignon, T., Leponce, M., & Roisin, Y. 2011. Beta‐Diversity of termite assemblages among primary French Guiana rain forests. Biotropica, 43: 473-479. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00729.x

Calderon, R. A., & Constantino, R. (2007). A survey of the termite fauna Isoptera of an eucalypt plantation in central Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 36: 391-395. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000300007

Cancello, E. M., Silva, R. R., Vasconcellos, A., Reis, Y. T., & Oliveira, L. M. (2014). Latitudinal variation in termite species richness and abundance along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot. Biotropica, 46: 441-450. doi: 10.1111/btp.12120

Carrijo, T. F., Brandão, D., de Oliveira, D. E., Costa, D. A., & Santos, T. (2009). Effects of pasture implantation on the termite Isoptera fauna in the central Brazilian Savanna Cerrado. Journal of Insect Conservation, 13: 575-581. doi: 10.1007/s10841-008-9205-y

Constantino, R. (1992). Abundance and diversity of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in two sites of primary rain forest in Brazilian Amazonia. Biotropica, 24: 420-430. doi: 10.2307/2388613

Constantino, R., & Acioli, A. N. S. (2006). Termite diversity in Brazil Insecta: Isoptera. Soil Biodiversity in Amazonian and Other Brazilian Ecosystems. Wallingforg, CAB International, 117-128.

Couto, A. A., Albuquerque, A. C., Vasconcellos, A., & Castro, C. C. (2015). Termite assemblages (Blattodea: Isoptera) in a habitat humidity gradient in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Zoologia (Curitiba), 32: 281-288. doi: 10.1590/S1984-46702015000400003

da Cunha, H. F., Carrijo, T. F., Abot, A. R., & da Silva Barbosa, C. (2015). Termite diversity in the Abobral region of the Pantanal wetland complex, Brazil. Check List, 111: article 1545. doi: 10.15560/11.1.1545

Dahlsjö, C. A., Parr, C. L., Malhi, Y., Meir, P., & Eggleton, P. (2015). Describing termite assemblage structure in a Peruvian lowland tropical rain forest: a comparison of two alternative methods. Insectes Sociaux, 62: 141-150. doi: 10.1007/s00040-014-0385-z

Davies, R. G. (1997). Termite species richness in fire-prone and fire-protected dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, northern Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13: 153-160. doi: 10.1017/S0266467400010348

Davies, R. G. (2002). Feeding group responses of a Neotropical termite assemblage to rain forest fragmentation. Oecologia, 133: 233-242. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-1011-8

Davies, R. G., Eggleton, P., Jones, D. T., Gathorne‐Hardy, F. J., & Hernández, L. M. (2003b). Evolution of termite functional diversity: analysis and synthesis of local ecological and regional influences on local species richness. Journal of Biogeography, 306, 847-877. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00883.x

Davies, A. B., Eggleton, P., Rensburg, B. J., & Parr, C. L. (2013). Assessing the relative efficiency of termite sampling methods along a rainfall gradient in African savannas. Biotropica, 45: 474-479. doi: 10.1111/btp.12030

Davies, R. G., Hernández, L. M., Eggleton, P., Didham, R. K., Fagan, L. L., & Winchester, N. N. (2003a). Environmental and spatial influences upon species composition of a termite assemblage across neotropical forest islands. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19: 509-524. doi: 10.1017/S0266467403003560

Dawes‐Gromadzki, T. Z. (2005). The termite Isoptera fauna of a monsoonal rainforest near Darwin, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 44: 152-157. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2005.00452.x

Dawes‐Gromadzki, T. Z. (2008). Abundance and diversity of termites in a savanna woodland reserve in tropical Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 47: 307-314. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2008.00662.x

Dambros, C., de Mendonça, D. R. M., Rebelo, T. G., & de Morais, J. W. (2012). Termite species list in a terra firme and ghost forest associated with a hydroelectric plant in Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List, 8: 718-721. doi: 10.15560/8.4.718

Dambros, C., da Silva, V. N. V., Azevedo, R., & de Morais, J. W. 2013. Road-associated edge effects in Amazonia change termite community composition by modifying environmental conditions. Journal for Nature Conservation, 215, 279-285. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2013.02.003

Dambros, C. S., Morais, J. W., Vasconcellos, A., Souza, J. L., Franklin, E., & Gotelli, N. J. (2016a). Association of ant predators and edaphic conditions with termite diversity in an Amazonian rain forest. Biotropica, 48: 237-245. doi: 10.1111/btp.12270

Dambros, C. S., Morais, J. W., Azevedo, R. A., & Gotelli, N. J. (2016b). Isolation by distance, not rivers, control the distribution of termite species in the Amazonian rain forest. Ecography, 39 Retrived from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecog.02663/epdf. doi: 10.1111/ecog.02663

Darlington, J. P. (1992). Survey of termites in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae). Florida Entomologist, 104-109. doi: 10.2307/3495487

Darlington, J. P. E. C., Leponce, M., & Ogutu, W. O. (1997). Termites (Isoptera) in Kibale Forest National Park, Western Uganda. Journal of East African Natural History, 86: 51-59. doi: 10.2982/0012-8317(1997)86[51:TIIKFN]2.0.CO;2

Deblauwe, I., & Dekoninck, W. (2007). Spatio-temporal patterns of ground-dwelling ant assemblages in a lowland rainforest in southeast Cameroon. Insectes Sociaux, 54: 343-350. doi: 10.1007/s00040-007-0952-7

Deblauwe, I., Dibog, L., Missoup, A.D., Dupain, J., Van Elsacker, L., Dekoninck, W., Bonte, D., and Hendrickx, F. (2007). Spatial scales affecting termite diversity in tropical lowland rainforest: a case study in southeast Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology, 461: 5-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00790.x

Donovan, S. E., Eggleton, P., & Martin, A. (2002). Species composition of termites of the Nyika plateau forests, northern Malawi, over an altitudinal gradient. African Journal of Ecology, 40: 379-385. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2028.2002.00397.x

Dosso, K., Konaté, S., Aidara, D., & Linsenmair, K. E. (2010). Termite diversity and abundance across fire-induced habitat variability in a tropical moist savanna Lamto, Central Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 26: 323-334. doi: 10.1017/S0266467410000015

Dosso, K., Yéo, K., Konaté, S., & Linsenmair, K. E. (2012). Importance of protected areas for biodiversity conservation in central Côte d’Ivoire: Comparison of termite assemblages between two neighboring areas under differing levels of disturbance. Journal of Insect Science, 121: Article 131. doi: 10.1673/031.012.13101

Duc, N. M., Lo, B. T., My, N. T., Van Quang, N., & Van Hanh, T. (2017). Data on Species Composition of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in Bac Huong Hoa Nature Reserve, Quang Tri Province. VNU Journal of Science: Natural Sciences and Technology, 32(1S): 18-25.

Eggleton, P., Bignell, D. E., Sands, W. A., Waite, B., Wood, T. G., & Lawton, J. H. (1995). The species richness of termites Isoptera under differing levels of forest disturbance in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, southern Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 85-98. doi: 10.1017/S0266467400008439

Eggleton, P., Bignell, D. E., Hauser, S., Dibog, L., Norgrove, L., & Madong, B. (2002a). Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 90: 189-202. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00206-7

Eggleton, P., Davies, R. G., Connetable, S., Bignell, D. E., & Rouland, C. (2002b). The termites of the Mayombe Forest Reserve, Congo Brazzaville: transect sampling reveals an extremely high diversity of ground-nesting soil feeders. Journal of Natural History, 36: 1239-1246. doi: 10.1080/00222930110048918

Eggleton, P., Homathevi, R., Jeeva, D., Jones, D. T., Davies, R. G., & Maryati, M. (1997). The species richness and composition of termites (Isoptera) in primary and regenerating lowland dipterocarp forest in Sabah, East Malaysia. Ecotropica, 3: 119-28.

Eggleton, P., Homathevi, R., Jones, D. T., MacDonald, J. A., Jeeva, D., Bignell, D. E., Davies, R. G., & Maryati, M. (1999). Termite assemblages, forest disturbance and greenhouse gas fluxes in Sabah, East Malaysia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 354: 1791-1802. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1999.0521

Ernesto, M. V., Ramos, E. F., Moura, F. M. D. S., & Vasconcellos, A. (2014). High termite richness in an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 14: 1-6. doi: 10.1590/1676-06032014005214

Florian, O. P. P., Baquero, L., & Beltran, M. (2017). Termite (Isoptera) Diversity in a gallery forests relict in the Colombian eastern plains. Sociobiology, 64: 92-100. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v64i1.1184

Emerson, A. E. (1925). The termites of Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana. Zoologica (New York), 6: 291–459.

Emerson, A. E. (1928). Termites of the Belgian Congo and the Cameroon. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 57: 401–574 + 19 pls, 24 maps, and 79 text figures.

Emerson, A. E. (1938). Termite Nests--A Study of the Phylogeny of Behavior. Ecological Monographs, 8: 247-284. doi: 10.2307/1943251

Funk, V. A., Richardson, K. S., & Ferrier, S. (2005). Survey-gap analysis in expeditionary research: where do we go from here? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 85: 549-567. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00520.x

Gathorne‐Hardy, F. J., Jones, D. T., & Mawdsley, N. A. (2000). The recolonization of the Krakatau islands by termites Isoptera, and their biogeographical origins. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 71: 251-267. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2000.tb01257.x

Gathorne‐Hardy, F. J., Davies, R. G., Eggleton, P., & Jones, D. T. (2002). Quaternary rainforest refugia in south‐east Asia: using termites Isoptera as indicators. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 75: 453-466. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00031.x

Gathorne-Hardy, F.J., Syaukani, & Eggleton, P. (2001). The effects of altitude and rainfall on the composition of the termites (Isoptera) of the Leuser Ecosystem Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17: 379-393. doi: 10.1017/S0266467401001262

Godoy, M. C., Laffont, E. R., Coronel, J. M., & Etcheverry, C. (2012). Termite (Insecta, Isoptera) assemblage of a gallery forest relic from the Chaco province Argentina: taxonomic and functional groups. Arxius de Miscel· lània Zoològica, 10: 55-67.

Gomes da Silva Medeiros, L., Gomes Bandeira, A., & Martius, C. (1999). Termite swarming in the northeastern Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 34: 76-87. doi: 10.1076/snfe.34.2.76.2103

Haviland, G.D. (1898). Observations on termites; with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 26: 358–442 + 4 pls. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1898.tb00405.x

Hanis, A., Abu Hassan, A., Nurita, A. T., & Che Salmah, M. R. (2014). Community structure of termites in a hill dipterocarp forest of Belum–Temengor forest complex, Malaysia: emergence of pest species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 62: 3-11.

Hausberger, B., Kimpel, D., Van Neer, A., & Korb, J. (2011). Uncovering cryptic species diversity of a termite community in a West African savanna. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61: 964-969. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.015

Hemachandra, I. I., Edirisinghe, J. P., Karunaratne, W. A. I. P., & Gunatilleke, C. V. S. (2010). Distinctiveness of termite assemblages in two fragmented forest types in Hantane hills in the Kandy District of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences), 39: 11-19. doi : 10.4038/cjsbs.v39i1.2349

Holmgren, N. (1906). Studien über südamerikanische Termiten. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 23: 521–676.

Houston, W. A., Wormington, K. R., & Black, R. L. (2015). Termite Isoptera diversity of riparian forests, adjacent woodlands and cleared pastures in tropical eastern Australia. Austral Entomology, 54: 221-230. doi: 10.1111/aen.12115

Inoue, T., Takematsu, Y., Yamada, A., Hongoh, Y., Johjima, T., Moriya, S., Sornnuwat, Y., Vongkaluang, C., Ohkuma M. & Kudo, T. (2006). Diversity and abundance of termites along an altitudinal gradient in Khao Kitchagoot National Park, Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 22: 609-612. doi: 10.1017/S0266467406003403

Jamil, N., Ismail, W. N. W., Abidin, S. S., Amaran, M. A., & Hazali, R. (2017). A preliminary survey of species composition of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in Samunsam wildlife sanctuary, Sarawak. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 28: 201–213. doi: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.2.15

Jones, D. T. (2000). Termite assemblages in two distinct montane forest types at 1000 m elevation in the Maliau Basin, Sabah. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16: 271-286. doi: 10.1017/S0266467400001401

Jones, D. T., & Eggleton, P. (2000). Sampling termite assemblages in tropical forests: testing a rapid biodiversity assessment protocol. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37: 191-203. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00464.x

Jones, D.T. & Prasetyo, A. H. (2002). A survey of the termites (Insecta: Isoptera) of Tab Along District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 50: 117-128.

Jones, D. T., Susilo, F. X., Bignell, D. E., & Suryo, H. (2000). Terrestrial insects: species richness, functional diversity and relative abundance of termites under different land use regimes. Pages 128–139 in A. N. Gillison, coordinator. Above-ground biodiversity assessment working group summary report 1996–1999 impact of different land uses on biodiversity. Alternatives to Slash and Burn Project. International Center for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya.

Jones, D. T., Rahman, H., Bignell, D. E., & Prasetyo, A. H. (2010). Forests on ultramafic-derived soils in Borneo have very depauperate termite assemblages. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 26: 103-114. doi: 10.1017/S0266467409990356

Jones, D. T., Susilo, F. X., Bignell, D. E., Hardiwinoto, S., Gillison, A. N., & Eggleton, P. (2003). Termite assemblage collapse along a land‐use intensification gradient in lowland central Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40: 380-391. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00794.x

Kemabonta, K. A., & Balogun, S. A. (2015). Species richness, diversity and relative abundance of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Futa Journal of Research in Sciences, 10: 188-197.

Krishna, K., Grimaldi, D. A., Krishna, V., & Engel, M. S. (2013a). Treatise on the Isoptera of the World: Vol. 1 Introduction. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 377: 5-200.

Krishna, K., Grimaldi, D. A., Krishna, V., & Engel, M. S. (2013a). Treatise on the Isoptera of the World: Vol. 2 Basal Families. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 377: 201-621.

Li, H. F., Lin, J. S., Lan, Y. C., Pei, K. J. C., & Su, N. Y. 2011. Survey of the termites Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae in a Formosan pangolin habitat. Florida Entomologist, 94: 534-538. doi: 10.1653/024.094.0318

Li, H. F., Lan, Y. C., Fujisaki, I., Kanzaki, N., Lee, H. J., & Su, N. Y. (2015). Termite assemblage pattern and niche partitioning in a tropical forest ecosystem. Environmental Entomology, 44: 546-556. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvv038

Li, Z. Q., Ke, Y. L., Zeng, W. H., Zhang, S. J., & Wu, W. J. (2015). Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to lower subtropical forest succession: A case study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China. Environmental Entomology, 45: 39-45. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvv171

Martius, C., Bandeira, A. G., & Medeiros, L. G. S. (1996). Variation in termite alate swarming in rain forests of central Amazonia. Ecotropica, 2: 1-11.

Martius, C. (2003). Rainfall and air humidity: non-linear relationships with termite swarming in Amazonia. Amazoniana, 17: 387-397.

Mathews, A. G. A. (1977). Studies on Termites from the Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 267 pp.

Nduwarugira, D., Mpawenayo, B., & Roisin, Y. (2017). The role of high termitaria in the composition and structure of the termite assemblage in Miombo woodlands of southern Burundi. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 10: 120-128. doi: 10.1111/icad.12207

Neoh, K. B., Bong, L. J., Nguyen, M. T., Nguyen, V.T., Nguyen, H. Q., Itoh, M., Kozan, O., & Yoshimura, T. (2015). Termite diversity and complexity in Vietnamese agroecosystems along a gradient of increasing disturbance. Journal of Insect Conservation, 19: 1129-1139. doi: 10.1007/s10841-015-9828-8

Neoh, K. B., Bong, L. J., Muhammad, A., Itoh, M., Kozan, O., Takematsu, Y., & Yoshimura, T. (2016). The impact of tropical peat fire on termite assemblage in Sumatra, Indonesia: Reduced complexity of community structure and survival strategies. Environmental Entomology, 45: 1170-1177. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvw116

Nunes, C. A., Quintino, A. V., Constantino, R., Negreiros, D., Reis Júnior, R., & Fernandes, G. W. (2017). Patterns of taxonomic and functional diversity of termites along a tropical elevational gradient. Biotropica, 49: 186-194. doi: 10.1111/btp.12365

Oliveira, D. E., Carrijo, T. F., & Brandão, D. (2013). Species composition of termites Isoptera in different Cerrado vegetation physiognomies. Sociobiology, 6: 190-197. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v60i2.190-197

Palin, O. F., Eggleton, P., Malhi, Y., Girardin, C. A., Rozas‐Dávila, A., & Parr, C. L. 2011. Termite diversity along an Amazon–Andes elevation gradient, Peru. Biotropica, 43: 100-107. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00650.x

Pribadi, T. E. G. U. H., Raffiudin, R. I. K. A., & Harahap, I. S. (2011). Termite community as environmental bioindicator in highlands: A case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, central Java. Biodiversitas, 12: 235-240. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d120409

Reis, Y. T., & Cancello, E. M. (2007). Riqueza de cupins (Insecta, Isoptera) em áreas de Mata Atlântica primária e secundária do sudeste da Bahia. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, 97: 229-234. doi: 10.1590/S0073-47212007000300001

Robello, A.M.C. & Martius, C. (1994). Dispersal flight of termites in Amazonian forests. Sociobiology 24: 127-146.

Roisin, Y., Dejean, A., Corbara, B., Orivel, J., Samaniego, M., & Leponce, M. (2006). Vertical stratification of the termite assemblage in a neotropical rainforest. Oecologia, 149: 301-311. doi: 10.1007/s00442-006-0449-5

Roisin, Y., & Leponce, M. (2004). Characterizing termite assemblages in fragmented forests: A test case in the Argentinian Chaco. Austral Ecology, 29: 637-646. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2004.01403.x

Scheffrahn, R. H., Jones, S. C., Krecek, J., Chase, J. A., Mangold, J. R., & Su, N. Y. (2003). Taxonomy, distribution, and notes on the termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96: 181-201. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2003)096[0181:TDANOT]2.0.CO;2

Scheffrahn, R. H., Krecek, J., Maharajh, B., Chase, J. A., Mangold, J. R., Moreno, J., & Bayardo, H. (2005). Survey of the termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of Nicaragua. Florida Entomologist, 88: 549-552. doi: 10.1653/0015-4040(2005)88[549:SOTTIK]2.0.CO;2

Scheffrahn, R. H., Křeček, J., Chase, J. A., Maharajh, B., & Mangold, J. R. (2006). Taxonomy, biogeography, and notes on termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99: 463-486. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[463:TBANOT]2.0.CO;2

Scheffrahn, R. H., Su, N. Y., & Diehl, B. (1990). Native, introduced, and structure-infesting termites of the Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae). Florida Entomologist, 73: 622-627. doi: 10.2307/3495276

Silva, E., Santos, A., Korasaki, V., Evangelista, A., Bignell, D., Constantino, R., & Zanetti, R. (2016). Does fipronil application on roots affect the structure of termite communities in eucalypt plantations? Forest Ecology and Management, 377: 55-60. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2016.06.035

Silvestri, F. (1903). Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei termite e termitofili dell’America meridionale. Redia 1: 1–234 + 6 pls.

Sjöstedt, Y. (1900). Monographie der Termiten Afrikas. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 34(4): 1–236 + 9 pls.

Sjöstedt, Y. (1925). Revision der Termiten Afrikas. 3. Monographie. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar (3) 3 (1): 1–419 + 16 pls.

Sornnuwat, Y., Charoenkrung, K., Chutibhapakorn, S., & Vongkaluang, C. (2003). Termite survey in secondary dry dipterocarp forest at Srinakarin Dam National Park, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Medicinal Mushroom and the International Conference Biodiversity and Bioactive Compounds (pp. 17-19).

Souza, H. B. D. A., Alves, W. D. F., & Vasconcellos, A. (2012). Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56: 67-72. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262012005000013

Wheeler, Q. D. (2004). Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 359: 571-583. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2003.1452

Willis, C. K., Skinner, J. D., & Robertson, H. G. (1992). Abundance of ants and termites in the False Karoo and their importance in the diet of the aardvark Orycteropus afer. African Journal of Ecology, 30: 322-334. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.1992.tb00509.x

Van Quang, N., Huy, N. Q., & My, N. T. (2017). Distributional characteristics of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) among different types of habitats in Dak Lak area. VNU Journal of Science: Natural Sciences and Technology, 32(1S): 103-110.

Vasconcellos, A., Bandeira, A. G., Moura, F. M. S., Araújo, V. F. P., Gusmão, M. A. B., & Constantino, R. (2010). Termite assemblages in three habitats under different disturbance regimes in the semi-arid Caatinga of NE Brazil. Journal of Arid Environments, 74: 298-302. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.07.007

Vasconcellos, A., Mélo, A. C. S., Segundo, E. D. M. V., & Bandeira, A. G. (2005). Cupins de duas florestas de restinga do nordeste brasileiro. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, 95: 127-131.

Viana-Junior, A. B., Reis, Y. T., Costa, A. P. M., & Souza, V. B. (2014). Termite assemblages in dry tropical forests of Northeastern Brazil: Are termites bioindicators of environmental disturbances? Sociobiology, 61: 324-331. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v61i3.324-331




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v65i1.2097

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2016: 0.699