A Review of the Biology, Ecology and Behavior of Velvety Tree Ants of North America
Keywords:Liometopum apiculatum, Liometopum luctuosum, Liometopum occidentale
AbstractAnts belonging to the genus Liometopum are regionally distributed across North America, Europe and Asia. L. apiculatum Mayr, L. luctuosum Wheeler, and L. occidentale Emery are found in western North America and are referred to as velvety tree ants. Very little is known about the biology of these species, but they are similar. They are typically associated with trees and shrubs and are frequently found tending hemipterans. All three species are are easily disturbed and and resort to highly aggressive behaviors including the use of strong alarm odors. The following review is intended to summarize the literature regarding the biology and control of these species. Special emphasis has been given to factors that might be important in their control and gaps in our current knowledge.
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