Is the social wasp fauna in the tree canopy different from the understory? Study of a particular area in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

Alexandre Somavilla, Raimundo Nonato Martins de Moraes Junior, José Albertino Rafael

Abstract


Most studies about the insect community in rainforests only focus on the forest understory, and even though the rainforest canopy is one of the most fascinating and diverse environments, it remains poorly explored. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between the social wasp composition in these two strata at the ZF-2 Station in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, using flight interception traps (Malaise model Gressi and Gressi), in the rainforest understory and canopy. We collected ninety-two species belonging to 18 genera; Polybia was the richest genera (22 species), followed by Mischocyttarus (14) and Agelaia (13). Forty-four species were exclusively collected in the understory, twenty exclusively collected in the canopy, and twenty-eight in both strata. The understory was distinctly more diverse and more abundant than the canopy, while some rare or poorly collected species were only found in the canopy. We found a strong relationship between the species composition at the ZF-2 Station and the Ducke Reserve. Therefore, we suggest using traps in canopy in the Amazon biome as an effective method for collecting a higher diversity of social wasps.

Keywords


Amazonas, Malaise trap, Polistinae wasps

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbosa, B.C., Detoni, M., Maciel, T.T., Prezoto, F. (2016). Studies of social wasp diversity in Brazil: Over 30 years of research, advancements and priorities. Sociobiology, 63: 858–880

Barbosa, P.H.D., Costa, A.C.L. da, Cunha, A.C. da, Silva Junior, J.A. (2015). Variabilidade de elementos meteorológicos e de conforto térmico em diferentes ambientes na Amazônia brasileira. Revista Brasileira de Climatologia, 17: 98–118.

Barroso, P.C.S., Somavilla, A., Boldrini, R. (2017). Updating the geographic records of social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae) in Roraima state. Sociobiology, 64: 339–346.

Carpenter, J.M. (2004). Synonymy of the genus Marimbonda Richards, 1978, with Leipomeles Mobius, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae), and a new key to the genera of paper wasps of the new world. American Museum Novitates, 3456: 1–16.

Carpenter J.M., Marques, O.M. (2001). Contribuição ao Estudo dos Vespídeos do Brasil. Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Bahia, 147 pp.

Erwin, T. (2013). Forest Canopies, Animal Diversity, in: Levin, S., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Academic Press Elsevier, New Jersey, pp.511–515.

Gomes, B. (2013). Diversidade de vespas sociais (Vespidae, Polistinae) na região norte de Rondônia e relação dos ciclos ambientais abióticos sobre o forrageio. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, USP, 55 pp.

Gomes, B., Knidel, S.V.L., Moraes, H.S., da Silva, M. (2018). Survey of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) in Amazon rainforest fragments in Acre, Brazil. Acta Amazonica, 48: 109–116.

Gressit, J.H., Gressit, K.M. (1972). An improved Malaise trap. Pacific Insects, 4: 87–90.

Higuchi, N., Pereira, H.S., Santos, J., Lima, A.J.N., Higuchi, F.G., Higuchi, M.I.G., Ayres I.G.S.S. (2009). Governos locais amazônicos e as questões climáticas globais. Manaus, 103 pp.

Köppen, W. (1948). Climatologia, con un estudio de los climas de la tierra. Fondo de Cultura Economica, México, 479 pp.

Martins, U.R., Galileo, M.H.M., Santos-Silva, A., Rafael, J.A. (2006). Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) coletados à luz a 45 metros de altura, no dossel da Floresta Amazônica, e a descrição de quatro espécies novas. Acta Amazonica, 36: 265–272.

Minchin, P.R. (1987). An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination. Vegetatio, 69: 89–107.

Morato, E.F., Amarante, S.T., Silveira, O.T. (2008). Avaliação ecológica rápida da fauna de vespas (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica, 38: 789–798.

Nakamura, A., Kitching, R.L., Cao, M., Creedy, T.J., Fayle, T.M., Freiberg, M., Hewitt, C.N., Itioka, T., Koh, L.P., Ma, K., Malhi, Y., Mitchell, A., Novotny, V., Ozanne, C.M.P., Song, L., Wang, H., Ashton, L.A. (2017). Forest canopy science: achievements and horizons. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 36: 438–451.

Noll, F.B., Gomes, B. (2009). An improved bait method for collecting Hymenoptera, especially social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae). Neotropical Entomology, 38: 477–481.

Oliveira, M.L., Fernandes, I.O., Somavilla, A. (2015). Insetos das Unidades de Conservação de Uso Sustentável no Interflúvio Madeira-Purus, in: Gordo, M., Pereira, H.S., (Eds.), Unidades de Conservação do Amazonas no Interflúvio Purus-Madeira: Diagnóstico Biológico. Editora da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, pp. 51–84.

Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Friendly, M., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., McGlinn, D. (2016). Vegan: Community ecology package. Avaliable at: http://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/vegan. (accessed 09 May 2018).

Pickett, K.M., Carpenter, J.M. (2010). Simultaneous analysis and the origin of eusociality in the Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny, 68: 3–33.

R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Avaliable at: http://www.R-project.org. (accessed 09 May 2018).

Rafael, J.A., Gorayeb, I.S. (1982). Tabanidae (Diptera) da Amazônia. I – Uma armadilha suspensa e primeiros registros de mutucas de copas de árvores. Acta Amazonica, 12: 232–236.

Raw, A. (1998). Social Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of the Ilha de Maracá, in: Ratter, J.A., Milliken, W. (Eds.), Maracá. Biodiversity and environment of an Amazonian Rainforest. Chichester, John & Sons, London, pp. 307–321.

Richards, O.W. (1978). The social wasps of the Americas (excluding the Vespinae). British Museum of Natural History, London, 580 pp.

Silva, S.S., Silveira, O.T. (2009). Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) de floresta pluvial Amazônica de terra firme em Caxiuanã, Melgaço, Pará. Iheringia, 99: 317–323.

Silveira, O.T. (2002). Surveying Neotropical Social Wasps. An Evaluation of Methods in the “Ferreira Penna” Research Station (ECFPn), in Caxiuanã, PA, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 42: 299–323.

Silveira, O.T., da Costa Neto, S.V., da Silveira, O.F.M. (2008). Social wasps of two wetland ecosystems in Brazilian Amazonia (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). Acta Amazonica, 38: 333–344.

Silveira, O.T., Silva, S.S., Pereira, J.L.G., Tavares, I.S. (2012). Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 56: 329–346.

Somavilla, A., Oliveira, M.L., Silveira, O.T. (2012). Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56: 405–414.

Somavilla, A., Oliveira, M.L. (2013). New Records of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in Amazonas State, Brazil. EntomoBrasilis, 6: 157–159.

Somavilla, A., Oliveira, M.L., Silveira, O.T. (2014). Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae) in Central Amazonian 'terra firme' forest. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 58: 349–355.

Somavilla, A., Marques, D.W.A., Barbosa, E.A.S., Pinto Jr, J.S., Oliveira, M.L. (2014). Vespas Sociais (Vespidae: Polistinae) em uma Área de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Amazônica no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. EntomoBrasilis, 7: 183–187.

Somavilla, A., Andena, S.R.; Oliveira, M.L. (2015). Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) of the Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. EntomoBrasilis, 8: 45–50.

Somavilla, A., Schoeninger, K., Castro, D.G.D., Oliveira, M.L., Krug, C. (2016). Diversity of wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in conventional and organic guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) crops in the Brazilian Amazon. Sociobiology, 63: 1051–1057.

Somavilla, A., Oliveira, M.L. (2017). Social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae) from Ducke Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Sociobiology, 64: 125–129.

Telles, E.D.C., Camargo, P.B., Martinelli, L.A., Trumbore, S.E., Costa, E.S., Santos, J., Higuchi, N., Oliveira Jr, R.C. (2003). Influence of soil texture on carbon dynamics and storage potential in tropical forest soils of Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17: 1–12.

Zucchi, R., Sakagami, S.F., Noll, F.B., Mechi, M.R., Mateus, S., Baio, M.V., Shima, S. (1995). Agelaia vicina, a swarm-founding polistine with the largest colony size among wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of New York Entomological Society, 103: 129–137.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v66i1.3568

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604