The Spatial Distribution of mtDNA and Phylogeographic Analysis of the Ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan
Keywords:ants, Cardiocondyla, male polymorphism, mitochondrial DNA, spatial distribution
In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of haplotypes of Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi Terayama in Japan using COI/II mitochondrial DNA. We also examined their genealogy with C. kagutsuchi in other areas and their close relative species. Four haplotypes were found. While two of them were found in a limited area (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands) separately, the others were distributed widely across Honsyu, Shikoku, and Kyusyu areas in Japan. The newly invaded area by C. kagutsuchi in Japan was Shizuoka prefecture. Their haplotype of Shizuoka were the same as the two haplotypes of the Honsyu, Shikoku, and Kyusyu areas. The haplotype network showed that the two haplotypes were distant from each other. The distance between them was 33, even though the two haplotypes are distributed in the same area. From the phylogenetic tree that we constructed, we found that C. strigifrons was in the same clade as C. kagutsuchi.
Anderson, C., Cremer, S. & Heinze, J. (2003). Live and let die: why fighter males of the ant Cardiocondyla kill each other but tolerate their winged rivals. Behav. Ecol., 14: 54–62. doi:10.1093/beheco/14.1.54
Cheung, W.Y., Hubert, N. & Landry, B.S. (1993). A simple and rapid DNA microextraction method for plant, animal, and insect suitable for RAPD and other PCR analyses. Genome Res., 3: 69–70.
Clary, D.O. & Wolstenholme, D.R. (1985). The mitochondrial DNA molecule of Drosophila yakuba: Nucleotide sequence, gene organization, and genetic code. J. Mol. Evol., 22: 252–271. doi:10.1007/BF02099755
Clement, M., Posada, D. & Crandall, K. A. (2000). TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Mol. Ecol., 9: 1657–1660. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01020.x
Heinze, J., Cremer, S., Eckl, N. & Schrempf, A. (2006). Stealthy invaders: the biology of Cardiocondyla tramp ants. Insectes Soc., 53: 1–7. doi:10.1007/s00040-005-0847-4
Heinze, J., Hölldobler, B. & Yamauchi, K. (1998). Male competition in Cardiocondyla ants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 42: 239–246. doi:10.1007/s002650050435
Heinze, J., Trindl, A., Seifert, B. & Yamauchi, K. (2005). Evolution of male morphology in the ant genus Cardiocondyla. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 37: 278–288. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.005
Kimura, M. (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Evol., 16:111–120. doi: 10.1007/BF01731581
Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol., 4: 406–425.
Seifert, B. (2003). The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Ann. Nat. Hist. Mus. Wien, B, 104: 203–338.
Seifert, B. (2008). Cardiocondyla atalanta FOREL, 1915, a cryptic sister species of Cardiocondyla nuda (MAYR, 1866) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol. News, 11: 43–48.
Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994). Evalution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase reaction primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 87: 651-701.
Suarez, A.V., Holway, D.A. & Tsutsui, N.D. (2008). Genetics and behavior of a colonizing species: The invasive Argentine ant. Am. Nat., 172: S72–S84. doi:10.1086/588638
Terayama, M. (1999). Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae. Part 6. Genus Cardiocondyla Emery. Mem. Myrmecol. Soc. Jap., 1, 99–107.
Terayama, M., Yamauchi, K. & Morisita, M. (1992). Cardiocondyla sp. 4. A Guide for the Identification of Japanese Ants (III), 32.
Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucl. Acids Res., 22: 4673–4680. doi:10.1093/nar/22.22.4673
Yamauchi, K., Asano, Y., Lautenschläger, B., Trindl, A. & Heinze, J. (2005). A new type of male dimorphism with ergatoid and short-winged males in Cardiocondyla cf. kagutsuchi. Insectes Soc., 52: 274–281. doi: 10.1007/s00040-005-0803-3
Yamauchi, K. & Kawase, N. (1992). Pheromonal manipulation of workers by a fighting male to kill his rival males in the ant Cardiocondyla wroughtonii. Naturwissenschaften, 79: 274–276. doi: 10.1007/BF01175395
Yamauchi, K. & Kinomura, K. (1993). Lethal fighting and reproductive strategies of dimorphic males in Cardiocondyla ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In T. Inoue & S.K. Yamane (Eds.), Evolution of insect societies (pp. 373–402). Tokyo: Hakuhinsha.
Yoshimura, M., Kubota, M., Onoyama, K. & Ogata, K. (2008). Taxonomic changes since the publication of Japanese Ant Image Database 2003. Ari, 31:13–28.
How to Cite
Sociobiology is a diamond open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).