Species Composition of Termites (Isoptera) in Different Cerrado Vegetation Physiognomies
Keywords:termite assemblage, biodiversity, forest, savanna, feeding guilds
Little is known about the termite fauna of the different vegetation physiognomies in the Cerrado biome. It is suggested that the species compositions in grassland and savanna areas are closely related to each other, and quite distinct from those of forests. This study compared the species composition from five different physiognomies of Cerrado, and tested the hypothesis that the termite faunas of savannas and grasslands form a distinct group from that of forests. The study was conducted in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Jaraguá, state of Goiás, Brazil. Termites were sampled from two physiognomies of savanna, one natural grassland, one pasture, and one gallery forest. A transect with 10 parcels of 5x2 m was established in each physiognomy. The relative abundance was inferred by the number of encounters, termites were classified in feeding guilds, and the dissimilarity in the species composition between the physiognomies was calculated. A total of 219 encounters, of 42 species of two families were recorded. The most abundant feeding guilds were the humivores (98) and xylophages (55). The physiognomies with the largest number of species were rupestrian cerrado (23 species) and cerrado sensu stricto (21). The physiognomies had a similar species composition (less than 55% dissimilarity), mainly the natural open areas. The hypothesis of a distinct fauna of termites in forest vegetation was refuted. The termite fauna of gallery forest is very different from that of pasture, but most species also occur in natural open areas. The impact of pasture on the diversity and composition of termites seems to be significant, but the impact is even greater on the proportion of the feeding guilds, reducing the proportion of xylophages and intermediates.
Agência Ambiental, G. (2004). Proposta de delimitação e reavaliação da categoria de Parque Ecológico da Serra de Jaraguá. Goiânia.
Bignell, D.E. (2006). Termites as Soil Engineers and Soil Processors. In H. König & A. Varma (Eds.), Intestinal Microorganisms of Termites and Other Invertebrates (pp. 183–220). Berlin: Springer.
Bignell, D.E., & Eggleton, P. (2000). Termites in ecosystems. In T. Abe, D.E. Bignell, & M. Higashi (Eds.), Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology (pp. 363–387). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bond, W.J., & Parr, C.L. (2010). Beyond the forest edge: Ecology, diversity and conservation of the grassy biomes. Biol. Conserv., 143: 2395–2404. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.012
Brandão, D., & Souza, R.F. (1998). Effects of deforestation and implantation of pastures on the fauna in the Brazilian “Cerrado” region. J. Trop. Ecol., 39: 19–22.
Carrijo, T.F., Brandão, D., Oliveira, D.E., Costa, D.A., & Santos, T. (2009). Effects of pasture implantation on the termite (Isoptera) fauna in the Central Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado). J. Insect Conserv., 13: 575–581. doi:10.1007/s10841-008-9205-y
Chao, A., Chazdon, R.L., Colwell, R.K., & Shen, T.J. (2005). A new statistical approach for assessing similarity of species composition with incidence and abundance data. Ecol. Lett., 8: 148-159. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00707.x
Coles, H.R. (1980). Defensive strategies in the ecology of neotropical termites. University of Southampton.
Colwell, R.K., & Coddington, J.A. (1994). Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 345: 101–118. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1994.0091
Constantino, R. (2002). The pest termites of South America: taxonomy, distribution and status. J. Appl. Ent., 126: 355–365. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00670.x
Constantino, R. (2005). Padrões de diversidade e endemismo de térmitas no bioma Cerrado. In A.O. Scariot, J.C.S. Silva, & J.M. Felfili (Eds.), Cerrado: Ecologia, Biodiversidade e Conservação (pp. 319–333). Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente.
Constantino, R. (2012). On Line Termite Database. Retrieved from http://vsites.unb.br/ib/zoo/catalog.html
Constantino, R., & Acioli, A.N.S. (2008). Diversidade de Cupins (Insecta: Isoptera) no Brasil. In F.M.S. Moreira, J.O. Siqueira, & L. Brussaard (Eds.), Biodiversidade do Solo em Ecossistemas Brasileiros (pp. 278–297). Lavras: UFLA.
Constantino, R., & Schlemmermeyer, T. (2000). Cupins (Insecta: Isoptera). In Fauna Silvestre da Região do Rio Manso - MT (pp. 129–151). Brasília: IBAMA / ELETRONORTE.
Cunha, H.F., Costa, D.A., & Brandão, D. (2006). Termite (Isoptera) assemblages in some regions of the Goiás State, Brazil. Sociobiology, 47: 505–518.
Cunha, H.F., & Orlando, T.Y.S. (2011). Functional composition of termite species in areas of abandoned pasture and in secondary succession of the Parque Estadual Altamiro de Moura Pacheco, Goiás, Brazil. Biosci. J., 27:986–992.
DeSouza, O., & Brown, W.L. (1994). Effects of habitat fragmentation on Amazonian termite communities. J. Trop. Ecol., 10: 197–206.
Domingos, D.J., Cavenaghi, T.M.C.M., & Gontijo, T.A. (1986). Composição em espécies, densidade e aspectos biológicos da fauna de térmitas de cerrado em Sete Lagoas-MG. Ciência e Cultura, 38:199–207.
Eggleton, P. (1999). Termite species description rates and the state of termite taxonomy. Insectes Soc., 46: 1–5. doi: 10.1007/s000400050105
Eggleton, P., Bignell, D.E., Sands, W.A., Mawdsley, N.A., Lawton, J.H., Wood, T.G., & Bignell, N.C. (1996). The Diversity, Abundance and Biomass of Termites under Differing Levels of Disturbance in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, Southern Cameroon. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 351:51–68. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1996.0004
Eiten, G. (1983). Classificação da vegetação do Brasil (p. 305). Brasília, DF: CNPq/Coordenação Editorial.
Gontijo, T.A., & Domingos, D.J. (1991). Guild Distribution of Some Termites from Cerrado Vegetation in South-East Brazil. J. Trop. Ecol., 7: 543–529.
Jouquet, P., Traoré, S., Choosai, C., Hartmann, C., & Bignell, D. (2011). Influence of termites on ecosystem functioning. Ecosystem services provided by termites. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 47: 215–222. doi:10.1016/j.ejsobi.2011.05.005
Kambhampati, S., & Eggleton, P. (2000). Taxonomy and phylogeny of termites. In T. Abe, D. Bignell, & M. Higashi (Eds.), Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology (pp. 1–23). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Klink, C.A., & Machado, R.B. (2005). A conservação do Cerrado Brasileiro. Megadiversidade, 1, 147–155.
Lavelle, P., Decaëns, T., Aubert, M., Barot, S., Blouin, M., Bureau, F., Rossi, J.-P. (2006). Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 42: S3–S15. doi:10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.10.002
Magurran, A.E. (2004). Measuring Biological Diversity (p. 256). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Mathews, A.G.A. (1977). Studies of termites from Mato Grosso State, Brazil (p. 264). Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Academia Brasileira de Ciências.
Meyer, D., Zeileis, A., & Hornik, K. (2006). The strucplot framework: visualizing multi-way contingency tables with vcd. J. Stat. Soft., 17:1–8. Retrieved from http://www.jstatsoft.org/v17/i03/
Meyer, D., Zeileis, A., & Hornik, K. (2011). vcd: visualizing categorical data. R package
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., & Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403: 853–858. doi:10.1038/35002501
Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P.R., O’Hara, R.B., Wagner, H. (2011). vegan: community ecology package. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/package=vegan
R Development Core Team. (2010). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from http://www.r-project.org/
Ribeiro, J.F., & Walter, B.M.T. (1998). Fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado. In S.M. Sano & S.P. Almeida (Eds.), Cerrado: Ambiente e Flora (pp. 89–166). Planaltina: Embrapa-CPAC Planaltina.
Rocha, G.F., Ferreira, L.G., Ferreira, N.C., & Ferreira, M.E. (2011). Detecção de desmatamentos no bioma Cerrado entre 2002 e 2009: padrões, tendências e impactos. Rev. Bras. Cart., 63: 341–349.
Roisin, Y., Dejean, A., Corbara, B., Orivel, J., Samaniego, M., & Leponce, M. (2006). Vertical stratification of the termite assemblage in a neotropical rainforest. Oecologia, 149: 301–311. doi:10.1007/s00442-006-0449-5
Sano, E.E., Rosa, R., Brito, J.L.S., & Ferreira, L.G. (2010). Land cover mapping of the tropical savanna region in Brazil. Environ. Monit. Assess., 166: 113–124. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0988-4
Silva, J.M.C., & Bates, J.M. (2002). Biogeographic patterns and conservation in the South American Cerrado: a tropical savanna hotspot. BioScience, 52: 225–234. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0225:BPACIT]2.0.CO;2
Wilson, E.O. (1971). The Insect Societies (p. 548). Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Wood, T.G., & Sands, W.A. (1978). The role of termites in ecosystems. In M.V. Brian (Ed.), Production Ecology of Ants and Termites (pp. 245–292). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
How to Cite
Sociobiology is a diamond open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).