Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) Does Not Cause Collapse of Colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Tropical Climate

Lubiane Guimarães-Cestaro, T. S. Maia, Renata Martins, Maria Luísa Teles M. F. Alves, Ivani Pozar Otsuk, Dejair Message, Erika Weinstein Teixeira

Abstract


Nosemosis is an important disease that affects honey bees (Apis mellifera Lineu), caused by obligate intracellular parasites, Nosema  apis  and/or  Nosema  ceranae. Since the initial detection of N. ceranae in A. mellifera coincided with recent large-scale losses of bee colonies worldwide, the impacts of this parasite under field conditions are of great interest. Here we test two hypotheses, the first one, whether the climatic variables (temperature, air humidity and precipitation) influence the intensity of infection of the microsporidium Nosema spp. in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera), and the second, whether the local of hive installation (outdoor or roofed) influences the intensity of infection of these spores in Africanized honey bees. Between August 2013 and August 2016, samples of Africanized bees were collected weekly from 20 colonies, of which ten were located in an open area (outdoor apiary) and ten under a roof on a concrete floor (roofed apiary). N.  ceranae was the only species present. The type of apiary did not influence (p > 0.05) the number of spores of N. ceranae in Africanized bees. However, the infection intensities of the roofed apiary colonies were lower in the autumn. Regarding the meteorological parameters, there was a negative correlation between the winter infection intensities and the minimum temperature in the roofed apiary and the humidity in the outdoor apiary. The highest infection intensities occurred in both apiaries in the spring and summer, which may be related to higher pollen production. On average, the infection intensity was 16.19 ± 15.81 x 105, ranging from zero to 100.5 x105, and there were no records of collapse during the three years.


Keywords


fungus, nosemosis, microsporidium.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v67i3.4950

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