The light intensity mediates the pollination efficacy of a Caatinga morning glory Ipomoea bahiensis (Convolvulaceae)
Keywords:Daily activity pattern, Apis mellifera, Melitoma, Pseudaugochlora pandora, pollination
Pollination is an ecological process that relies on the matching traits of flower visitors and flowers. Morphology, behavior, and temporal patterns play essential roles in mediating the interactions between plants and floral visitors. This study analyzed the temporal aspects of visitors and flowers interaction and the possible adjustment between both organisms. We used Ipomoea bahiensis and its flower visitors as a model system. We evaluated the visitor frequency on the flowers throughout the day, flower opening and closing times, pollen availability and stigma receptivity. We also evaluated the highest fruit production time during the flower longevity was analyzed, and the time of highest pollinator activity, related to climatic factors. Among the floral visitors, bees, especially Melitoma spp., Apis mellifera, and Pseudaugochlora pandora were the most frequent visitors, presenting regular visits synchronized with the flower opening and closing times, which were also regular. This system was influenced mainly by light intensity. Besides, these bees were very active during the times of the highest fruit production. These data indicate the presence of temporal patterns for both the bees and the visited plants, and synchronization between them, being the light intensity as a modulator of the rhythms of bees and plant, confirming the importance of the temporal adjustments for pollination efficiency.
Araujo, L. S., Medina, A. M. & Gimenes, M. (2018). Pollination efficiency on Ipomoea bahiensis (Convolvulaceae): morphological and behavioural aspects of floral visitors. Iheringia. Série Zoologia (Online), 108: 1-5.
Bates D., Maechler M., Bolker B., Walker S. (2014). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-7. Retrieved December 19, 2014, from http://cran.r-project.org/package=lme4
Bellusci S., Marques M. D. (2001). Circadian activity rhythm of the foragers of a eusocial bee (Scaptotrigona aff. Depilis Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) outside the nest. Biological Rhythm Research, 32: 117-124.
Bloch G, Bar-Shai N, Cytter, Y, Green R. (2017). Time is honey: circadian clocks of bees and flowers and how their interactions may influence ecological communities. Phylosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 372:20160256. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0256.
Blüthgen, N. & Klein, A.M. (2011). Functional complementarity and specialisation: The role of biodiversity in plant-pollinator interactions. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12: 282-291.
Bolker B. & Team R.D.C. (2014). bbmle: Tools for general maximum likelihood estimation. R package version 1.0.17. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=bbmle.
Burnham, K.P. & Anderson D.R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretical Approach. 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York: 488 p.
Dafni A. & Maués M.M.A. (1998). Rapid and simple procedure to determine stigma receptivity. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 11: 177-180.
Edge A.A., van Nest B.N., Johnson J.N., Miller S.N., Naeger N., Boyd S.D. & Moore D. (2012). Diel nectar secretion rhythm in squash (Cucurbita pepo) and its relation with pollinator activity. Apidologie, 43: 1-16. doi:10.1007/s13592-011-0087-8.
Gimenes M., Benedito-Silva A.A. & Marques M.D. (1993). Chronobiologic aspects of a coadaptive process: the interaction of Ludwigia elegans flowers and its more frequent bee visitors. Chronobiology International, 10: 20-30.
Gimenes M., Benedito-Silva A.A. & Marques, M.D. (1996). Circadian rhythms of pollen and nectar collection by bees on the flowers of Ludwigia elegans (Onagraceae). Biological Rhythm Research, 27: 281-290.
Gottlieb D., Keasar T., Shmida A. & Motro U. (2005). Possible Foraging Beneﬁts of Bimodal Daily Activity in Proxylocopa olivieri (Lepeletier) (Hym.: Anthophoridae). Environmental Entomology, 4: 417-424.
Hothorn T., Bretz F. & Westfall P. (2008). Simultaneous Inference in General Parametric Models. Biometrical Journal, 50: 346-363.
Ichimura K. & Suto K. (1998). Environmental Factors Controlling Flower Opening and Closing in a Portulaca Hybrid. Annals of Botany, 82: 67-70.
Kaihara S. & Takimoto A. (1979). Environmental factors controlling the time of ﬂower-opening in Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 20: 1659-1666
Kaihara S. & Takimoto A. (1980). Studies on the light controling the time of flower-opening in Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 21: 21-26.
Kilkenny F.F. & Galloway L.F. (2008). Reproductive success in varying light environments: direct and indirect effects of light on plants and pollinators. Oecologia, 155: 247-255.
Köppen W. & Geiger R. (1928). Klimate der Erde. Gotha: Verlag Justus Perthes. Wall-map 150cmx200cm.
Koukkari W.L.& Sothern R.B. (2006). Introducing biological rhythm. Springer, 655 p.
Lutz F.E. (1931). Light as a factor in controlling the start of daily activity of a wren and stingless bees. American Museum Novitates, 468: 1-9.
Martins C.F. (2002). Diversity of the Bee Fauna of the Brazilian Caatinga. In: Kevan P., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. (Eds), Pollinating Bees – The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature. Ministry of Environment, Brasília, BR: 131-134.
Matile P. (2006). Circadian rhythmicity of nectar secretion in Hoya carnosa. Botanica Helvetica, 116: 1-7.
Moore D. & Rankin M.A. (1985). Circadian locomotor rhythms in individual honey bees. Physiological Entomology, 10: 191-197.
Moore D. & Rankin M.A. (1993). Light and temperature entrainment of a locomotor rhythm in honeybees. Physiological Entomology, 18: 271-278.
Moore D. (2001). Honey bee circadian clocks: behavioral control from individual workers to whole-colony rhythms. Journal of Insect Physiology, 47: 843-857.
Paz J.R.L, Pigozzo C.M. (2013). Guilda de visitantes florais de quatro espécies simpátricas de Convolvulaceae: composição e comportamento. Acta Biológica Paranaense, 42: 7-27.
Paz J.R.L., Gimenes M. & Pigozzo C.M. (2013). Three diurnal patterns of anthesis in Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae): Implications for temporal, behavioral and morphological characteristics of pollinators? Flora, 208: 138-146.
Paz, J.R.L.; Pigozzo, C. M. & Gimenes, M. (2018). The Roles of Bees and Hoverflies in the Pollination of Jacquemontia evolvuloides (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae) in a Semiarid Region. Sociobiology, 65: 244-251.
Pick R.A. & Schlindwein C. (2011). Pollen partitioning of three species of Convolvulaceae among oligolectic bees in the Caatinga of Brazil. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 293: 147-159.
Polatto L.P., Chaud-Netto, J. & Vieira, V. (2014). Influence of Abiotic Factors and Floral Resource Availability on Daily Foraging Activity of Bees: Influence of Abiotic and Biotic Factors on Bees. Journal of Insect Behavior, 27: 593-612. doi: 10.1007/s10905-014-9452-6.
Prasad, A. & Hodge, S. (2013). Factors influencing the foraging activity of the allodapine bee Braunsapis puangensis on creeping daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata) in Fiji. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 35: 59-69. doi: 10.3897/jhr.35.6006
Santana J.R.F. & Santos G.M.M. (1999) Arborização do campus da UEFS: um exemplo a ser seguido ou um grande equívoco? Sitientibus, 20: 103-107.
Santos, S.K.D. & Gimenes, M. (2016). The efficiency of bees in pollinating ephemeral flowers of Jacquemontia bracteosa (Convolvulaceae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. [online], 106. doi: 10.1590/1678-4766e2016025.
Silva F.O., Kevan S.D., Roque N., Viana B.F. & Kevan P.G. (2010). Records on floral biology and visitors of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae) in Mucugê, Bahia. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 70: 671-676.
Tanaka O., Murakami I., Wada I., Tanaka Y. & Naka Y. (1989). Flower Opening and Closing of Oxalis martiana. Botanical Magazine, 102: 245-253.
Terada Y., Taniguchi A.P, Ruvolo-Takasusuki M.C.C., Toledo V.A.A. (2005). Floral biology of four Ipomoea (Tubiflorae: Convolvulaceae) species. Acta Scientiarum – Animal Sciences, 27: 137-143.
Torres-Díaz C., Cavieres L.A., Muñoz-Ramírez C. & Arroyo M.T.K. (2007). Consequences of microclimate variation on insect pollinator visitation in two species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in the central Chilean Andes. Revista de Historia Natural, 80: 455-468.
Van Doorn W.G. & Van Meeteren U. (2003). Flower opening and closure: a review. Journal of Experimental Botany, 389: 1801-1812.
Van Doorn, W.G. & Kamdee, C. (2014). Flower opening and closure: An update. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65: 5749-5757. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru327.
Wcislo W.T., Cane J.H. (1996). Floral resource utilization by solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and exploitation of their stored foods by natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology, 41: 257-86.
Zuur A.F., Leno E.N., Walker N., Saveliev A.A. & Smith G.M. (2009). Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg: 524 p.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Miriam Gimenes, Laene Silva Araujo, Anderson Matos Medina
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Sociobiology is a diamond open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).