A Novel Integrative Methodology for Research on Pot-honey Variations During Post-harvest


  • Patricia Vit Universidad de Los Andes
  • Bajaree Chuttong Meliponini and Apini Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
  • Norhasnida Zawawi Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia
  • Maria Diaz Quality Services International GmbH, 28199 Bremen, Germany.
  • Jane van der Meulen Quality Services International GmbH, 28199 Bremen, Germany
  • Hajar F. Ahmad Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Francisco A. Tomas-Barberan Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Edf 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain
  • Gina Meccia University of the Andes
  • Khanchai Danmek School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 Thailand
  • Jorge Enrique Moreno Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama
  • David W. Roubik Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama
  • Ortrud Monika Barth Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Dirk W. Lachenmeier Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency CVUA, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Michael S. Engel 11Division of Entomology, Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1501 Crestline Drive-Suite 140, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA. 12Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024, USA.




antioxidant activity, biosurfactant activity, 1H-NMR, flavonoids, Meliponini, melyssopalinology, sensory analysis


This novel review of analytical methods for pot-honey research was intended to provide concise references to a 35-day post-harvest experiments at 30 °C, in an integrated study. Diverse methods were selected from specialized literature, from the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), and the International Honey Commission. Besides the geographical and seasonal origin, the pot-honey I.D. consists of entomological and botanical identifications, the latter performed by acetolyzed or natural melissopalynology. The methods of this integrative study included: 1. Physicochemical analysis (Aw, color, moisture, pH, free acidity, lactone acidity, total acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and sugars by highperformance liquid chromatography HPLC), 2. Targeted proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR metabolomics (sugars, ethanol, HMF, aliphatic organic acids, amino acids, and botanical markers), 3. Biochemical composition (flavonoids, polyphenols), 4. Antioxidant activity (ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid-free radical scavenging assay, DPPH 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ferric reduction assay FRAP), 5. Microbial counts (aerobic plate, yeast and mold, Bacillus, and lactic acid bacteria count), 6. Honey microbiome profiling via independent-culture method: high-throughput bacteria and fungi based on amplicon sequencing approaches, 7. Sensory evaluation (odor, aroma, taste, persistence), and 8. Honey authenticity and biosurfactant tests by an interphase emulsion. A further section was included to provide basic information on the results obtained using each method. This was needed to explain the interacting components derived from pot-honey processing within the stingless bee nest and post-harvest transformations.


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Vit, P., Chuttong, B., Zawawi, N., Diaz, M., van der Meulen, J., Ahmad, H. F., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., Meccia, G., Danmek, K., Moreno, J. E., Roubik, D. W., Barth, O. M., Lachenmeier, D. W., & Engel, M. S. (2022). A Novel Integrative Methodology for Research on Pot-honey Variations During Post-harvest. Sociobiology, 69(4), e8251. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v69i4.8251




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