Seasonal Analysis of Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Poneromorph Ant Assemblages in the Amazon Forest

Luana Priscila de Carvalho Pereira, Fábio Souto Almeida, André Barbosa Vargas, Marcel Santos de Araújo, Antônio José Mayhé-Nunes, Jarbas Marçal Queiroz

Abstract


The present study aimed at assessing the effects of climate seasonality on poneromorph ants in the Brazilian Amazon, by studying variations in composition, richness, and taxonomic and functional diversity. The study was carried out in the Tapirapé-Aquiri National Forest, southeastern Pará State. We collected poneromorph ants in three areas of native forest with pitfall traps and sardine baits on the ground and vegetation, in two dry and rainy seasons. We collected 46 species of poneromorph ants, which belong to two subfamilies and eleven genera. The species composition, richness and taxonomic diversity did not vary significantly between seasons. There was no significant difference in the frequency of species of functional groups between dry and rainy seasons. There was no significant difference in the average richness and average diversity of functional groups between the dry and rainy seasons. In our study we found no seasonal differences in composition, taxonomic and functional richness and diversity of poneromorph ants in the Amazon, which is useful for future studies that aim at using those ants as bioindicators. In addition, the identification of the species made in the present study has special relevance as it contributes to advance the knowledge of poneromorph ant diversity in the Amazon.


Keywords


biodiversity, Formicidae, protected area

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almeida, F.S., Queiroz, J.M. & Mayhé-Nunes, A.J. (2007). Distribuição e abundância de ninhos de Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em um agroecossistema diversificado sob manejo orgânico. Floresta e Ambiente, 14(1): 33 – 43.

Almeida, F.S., Mayhé-Nunes, A.J. & Queiroz, J.M. (2013). The importance of poneromorph ants for seed dispersal in altered environments. Sociobiology, 60: 229-235. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v60i3.229-235

Alvares, C.A., Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., Gonçalves, J.L.M., Sparovek, G. (2013). Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22(6): 711-728. doi: 10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

Baccaro, F.B., Souza, J.L.P., Franklin, E., Landeiro, V.L. & Magnusson, W.E. (2012). Limited effects of dominant ants on assemblage species richness in three Amazon forests. Ecological Entomology, 37: 1-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2011.01326.x

Bastos, A.H.S. & Harada, A.Y. (2011). Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae) in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 55: 589-596. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262011000400016

Bestelmeyer, B.T., Agosti, D., Alonso, L.E., Brandão, R.F., Brown JR., W.L., Delabie, J.H.C. & Silvestre, R. (2000). Field techniques for the study of ground-dwelling ants: an overview description and evaluation. In: D. Agosti, J.D. Majer, L.E. Alonso & T.R. Schultz (Eds). Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity (pp. 122-144). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Bolton, B. (1994). Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Massachusetts: Havard University Press, 222p.

Bolton, B. (1995). A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History, 29: 1037-1056. doi:10.1080/00222939500770411

Bolton, B. (2003). Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 71: 1-370.

Braga, D.L., Louzada, J.N.C., Zanetti, R. & Delabie, J. (2010). Avaliação rápida da diversidade de formigas em sistemas de uso do solo no sul da Bahia. Neotropical Entomology, 39: 464-468. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400002

Carpintero, S. & Reyes-López, J. (2008). The role of competitive dominance in the invasive ability of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Biological Invasions, 10: 25-35. doi: 10.1007/s10530-007-9103-3

Coelho, I.R. & Ribeiro, S.P. (2006). Environment heterogeneity and seasonal effects in ground-dwelling ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, MG, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 35(1): 19-29. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000100004

Colwell, R.K. (2006). EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.0. . Accessed date: December 12th. 2011.

Diaz, S. & Cabido, M. (2001). Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16: 646–655. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02283-2

Delabie, J.H.C., Agosti, D. & Nascimento, I.C. (2000). Litter ant communities of the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest region. In: D. Agosti, J. Majer, L. Alonso, T. Schultz (Eds), Sampling ground-dwelling ants: case studies from the world’s rain forests (pp. 1-17). Perth: School of Environmental Biology (Bulletin 18).

EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. (2015). Banco de dados climáticos do Brasil. . Accessed date: August 11th. 2015.

Fernandez, F. (1991). Las hormigas cazadoras del género Ectatomma (Formicidae: Ponerinae) en Colombia. Caldasia, 16: 551-564.

Fernández, F. & Arias-Penna, T.M. (2008). Las hormigas cazadoras en la región Neotropical. In. E. Jiménez, F. Fernández, T.M. Arias & F.H. Lozano-Zambrano (Eds.), Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia (pp.3-39). Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.

Fernández, F. & Sendoya, S. (2004). List of Neotropical Ants. Biota Colombiana, 5: 3-88.

Fittkau, E.J. & Klinge, H. (1973). On biomass and trophic structure of the Central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica, 5: 2-14. doi: 10.2307/2989676

Fowler, H.G.L., Forti, C.; Brandão, C.R.F.; Delabie J.H.C. & Vasconcelos, H.L. (1991). Ecologia nutricional de formigas. In A.R. Pazzini, & J.R.P. Parra (Eds), Ecologia nutricional de insetos e suas implicações no manejo de pragas (pp. 131-209). São Paulo: Manole.

Gomes, D.S., Almeida, F.S., Vargas, A.B. & Queiroz, J.M. (2013). Resposta da assembleia de formigas na interface solo-serapilheira a um gradiente de alteração ambiental. Iheringia, Série Zoologia, 103: 104-109. doi: 10.1590/S0073-47212013000200004.

Gotwald, W.H.Jr. (1995). Army ants: the biology of social predation. New York: Cornell University Press, 302p. doi: 10.1093/aesa/89.2.309

Groc, S., Delabie, J.H.C., Fernandez, F., Leponce, M., Orivel, J., Silvestre, R., Vasconcelos, H.L. & Dejean, A. (2014). Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rain-forest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News, 19: 43-51.

Hammer, O., Harper, D. A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Ver. 2.04. . Accessed date: December 9th. 2011.

Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990). The ants. Cambridge: Harvard University, 732p. doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1992.5010169.x

Jimenez, E., Fernandez, F., Arias, T.M. & Lozano-Zambrano, F.H. (2008). Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Colombia: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, 622 p.

Lach, L. (2005). Interference and exploitation competition of three nectar-thieving invasive species. Insectes Sociaux, 52: 257-262. doi: 10.1007/s00040-005-0807-z

Lattke, J.E. (2003). Subfamilia Ponerinae. In F. Fernandez (Ed.), Introduccíon a las hormigas de la región Neotropical (pp.261-281). Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.

Leivas, F.W.T. & Carneiro, E. (2012). Utilizando os hexápodes (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) como bioindicadores na biologia da conservação: avanços e perspectivas. Estudos de Biologia: Ambiente e Diversidade, 34(83): 203-213. doi: 10.7213/estud.biol.7333

Lyal, C.H.C. & Weitzman, A.L. (2004). Taxonomy: exploring the impediment. Science, 305: 1106. doi: 10.1126/science.305.5687.1106a

Macedo, L.P.M., Berti Filho, E. & Delabie, J.H.C. (2011). Epigean ant communities in Atlantic Forest remnants of São Paulo: a comparative study using the guild concept. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 55(1): 75-78. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262011000100012

Martins, L., Almeida, F.S., Mayhe-Nunes, A.J. & Vargas, A.B. (2011). Efeito da complexidade estrutural do ambiente sobre as comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) no município de Resende, RJ, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 9(2):174-179.

Medeiros, F.N.S. (1997). Ecologia comportamental da formiga Pachycondyla striata Fr. Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae) em uma floresta do sudeste do Brasil. 1997. 70p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas). Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP.

MMA - Ministério do Meio Ambiente. (2006). Plano de manejo para uso múltiplo da Floresta Nacional Tapirapé-Aquiri. Brasília: MMA/IBAMA, 453p.

Montine, P.S.M., Viana, N.F., Almeida, F.S., Dattilo, W., Santanna, A.S., Martins, L. & Vargas, A.B. (2014). Seasonality of epigaeic ant communities in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Sociobiology 61(2): 178-183. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v61i2.178-183

Neves, F.S., Braga, R.F., Espírito-Santo, M.M., Delabie, J.H.C., Fernandes, G.W. & Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A. (2010). Diversity of arboreal ants in a Brazilian tropical dry forest: effects of seasonality and successional stage. Sociobiology, 56(1): 1-18.

Passos, L. & Oliveira, P.S. (2002). Ants affect the distribution and performance of Clusia criuva seedlings, a primarily bird-dispersed rain forest tree. Journal of Ecology, 90: 517–528. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.00687.x

Passos, L. & Oliveira, P.S. (2004). Interactions between ants and fruits of Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) in a Brazilian sand plain rain forest: ant effects on seeds and seedling. Oecologia, 139: 376-382. doi: 10.1007/s00442-004-1531-5

Peroni, N. & Hernandez, M.I.M. (2011). Ecologia de populações e comunidades. Florianópolis: CCB/EAD/UFSC. 123p.

Rolim, S.G., Couto, H.T.Z., Jesus, R.M. & França, J.T. (2006). Modelos volumétricos para a Floresta Nacional do Tapirapé-Aquirí, Serra dos Carajás (PA). Acta Amazonica, 36(1): 107-114. doi: 10.1590/S0044-59672006000100013

Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. (2014). The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa, 3817(1): 01-242. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1

Schmitz, H.J., Amador, R.B., Ferreira, J.E.D., Maues, M.M., Nascimento, I.M. & Martins, M.B. (2014). Relações biodiversidade vs. clima em escala local: um estudo de caso em busca de padrões espaço-temporais em insetos. In: T. Emilio & F. Luizão (Orgs) Cenários para a Amazônia: clima, biodiversidade e uso da terra (pp. 19-30). Manaus: Editora INPA.

Silva, R.R. & Brandão, C.R.F. (1999). Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) como indicadores da qualidade ambiental e da biodiversidade de outros invertebrados terrestres. Biotemas, 12: 55-73.

Silva, R.R. & Brandão, C.R.F. (2010). Morphological patterns and community organization in leaf-litter ant assemblages. Ecological Monographs, 80(1): 107–124. doi: 10.1890/08-1298.1

Silva, R.R. & Silvestre, R.R. (2000). Diversidade de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em Seara, Oeste de Santa Catarina. Biotemas, 13: 85-105.

Silva, E.M., Medina, A.M., Nascimento, I.C., Lopes, P.P., Carvalho, K.S. & Santos, G.M.M. (2014). Does ant community richness and composition respond to phytophysiognomical complexity and seasonality in xeric environments? Sociobiology 61(2): 155-163. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v61i2.155-163

Silvestre, R.; Brandão, C.R. & Silva, R.R. (2003). Grupos funcionales de hormigas: el caso de los grêmios del Cerrado. En: F. Fernández (Ed.), Introducción a las hormigas de la región Neotropical (pp.113-148). Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.

Souza Filho, J.D.C., Ribeiro, A., Costa, M.H. & Cohen, J.C.P. (2005). Mecanismos de controle da variação sazonal da transpiração de uma floresta tropical no nordeste da Amazônia. Acta Amazonica 35(2): 223-229. doi: 10.1590/S0044-59672005000200012

Townsend, C.R., Begon, M. & Harper, J.L. (2006). Fundamentos em ecologia. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 592p.

Vargas, A.B. (2011). Diversidade de formigas em fragmentos florestais no vale do Paraíba, Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro. 2011. 79p. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Ambientais e Florestais), Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ.

Vargas, A.B., Mayhé-Nunes, A.J., Queiroz, J.M., Souza, G.O. & Ramos, E.F. (2007). Efeitos de fatores ambientais sobre a mirmecofauna em comunidade de restinga no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Neotropical Entomology, 36: 28-37. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000100004

Vasconcelos, H.L., Macedo, A.C.C. & Vilhena, J.M.S. (2003). Influence of topography on the distribution of ground-dwelling ants in an Amazonian Forest. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 38: 115–124. doi: 10.1076/snfe.38.2.115.15923

Vogt, J.T., Smith, W.A., Grantham, R.A. & Wright, R.E. (2003). Effects of temperature and season on foraging activity of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Oklahoma. Environmental Entomology, 32(3): 447-451. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-32.3.447

Wilkie, K.T.R., Mertl, A.L. & Traniello, J.F.A. (2010). Species diversity and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador. Plos One, 5(10) 1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013146

Wolda, H. (1988). Insect seasonality: why? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 19: 1-18. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.19.110188.000245




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v63i3.1053

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604