Comparative Evaluation of Three Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Termite Baits Using Multiple Bioassay Designs

Bal Krishna Gautam, Gregg Henderson

Abstract


Use of chitin synthesis inhibitors has revolutionized the potential impact of termite baiting systems. Several chitin synthesis inhibitors have been used or tested against subterranean termites. We evaluated the effect of lufenuron on bait matrix consumption and mortality of Coptotermes formosanus and compared it with 2 other chitin synthesis inhibitors presently used for termite control: diflubenzuron and noviflumuron. Laboratory no-choice and multi-chamber bioassay designs were employed. At the end of 6 weeks, in both the no-choice and multi-chamber tests, mortality was significantly higher in all the chitin synthesis inhibitor treatments as compared to the controls; however, lufenuron treatment had significantly higher mortality than the other chitin synthesis inhibitors. Multi-chamber tests suggested no sign of feeding deterrence with any of the chitin synthesis inhibitors at the concentrations tested. Consumption of lufenuron cardboard or noviflumuron bait matrix was similar to that of control cardboard in the no-choice tests. We conclude that, based on the overall bait consumption and mortality data, lufenuron was at least as effective as noviflumuron and diflubenzuron.

Keywords


Benzoylphenylurea, Coptotermes formosanus, termite baits, termite control

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arakawa, T., Furuta, Y., Miyazawa, M. & Kato, M. (2002). Flufenoxuron, an insect growth regulator, promotes peroral infection by nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) budded particles in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Journal of Virological Methods, 100: 141–147.

Bowen, CJ. & Kard, B. (2012). Termite aerial colony elimination using lufenuron bait (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society, 85: 273-284.

Cabrera, BJ. & Thoms, EM. (2006). Versatility of baits containing noviflumuron for control of structural infestations of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Florida Entomologist, 89: 20-31.

French, JRJ. (1991). Baits and foraging behavior of Australian species of Coptotermes. Sociobiology, 19: 171-186.

Gautam, BK. & Henderson, G. (2011). Effects of sand moisture level on food consumption and distribution of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) with different soldier proportions. Journal of Entomological Science, 46: 1-13.

Gautam, BK., Henderson, G. & Wang, C. (2014). Localized treatments using commercial dust and liquid formulations of fipronil against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory. Insect Science, 21: 174-180.

Grace, JK. & Su N-Y. (2001). Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection (Isoptera). Sociobiology, 37: 301-310.

Grace, JK., Tome, CHM., Shelton, TG., Ohsiro, RJ. & Yates, JR. (1996). Baiting studies and considerations with Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. Sociobiology, 28: 511-520.

Green III, F., Arango, R. & Esenther, G. (2008). Community- wide suppression of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin-search for the holy grail, pp. 1-10. In The International Research Group on Wood Protection, IRG/WP 08-10674. IRG Secretariat Stockholm, Sweden.

Haverty, MI., Tabuchi, RL., Vargo, EL., Cox, DL., Nelson, LJ. & Lewis, VR. (2010). Response of Reticulitermes hesperus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies to baiting with lufenuron in northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103:770–780.

Jones, SC. (1989). Field evaluation of fenoxycarb as a bait toxicant for subterranean termite control. Sociobiology, 15: 33-41.

Karr, LL., Sheets, JJ., King, JE. & Dripps, J E. (2004). Laboratory performance and pharmacokinetics of the benzoylphenylurea noviflumuron in eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97: 593-600.

King, EGJ. & Spink, WS. (1969). Foraging galleries of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, in Louisiana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62: 536-542.

Lewis, JL. & Forschler, BT. (2010). Impact of five commercial baits containing chitin synthesis inhibitors on the protist community in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Environmental Entomology, 39: 98-104.

Lovelady, C., Cox, D., Zajac, M. & Cartwright, B. (2006). Lufenuron termite bait. pp. 68-69. In S. C. Jones (ed.), Proceedings of the 2008 national conference on urban Entomology, Tulsa, OK.

Merzendorfer, H. (2013). Chitin synthesis inhibitors: old molecules and new developments. Insect Science, 20: 121–138.

Merzendorfer, H., Kim, HS., Chaudhari, SS., Kumari, M., Specht, CA., Butcher, S., Brown, SJ., Robert Manak, J., Beeman, RW., Kramer, KJ. & Muthukrishnan, S. (2012). Genomic and proteomic studies on the effects of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron in the model beetle species Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42: 264–276.

Osbrink, WLA., Cornelius, ML. & Lax, AR. (2011). Areawide field study on effect of three chitin synthesis inhibitor baits on populations of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Journal of Economic Entomology, 104: 1009-1017.

Robertson, AS. & Su, N-Y. (1995). Discovery of an effective slow-acting insect growth regulator for controlling subterranean termites. Down to Earth, 50: 1-7.

Rojas, MG. & Morales-Ramos, JA. (2001). Bait matrix for delivery of chitin synthesis inhibitors to the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 94: 506-510.

Rojas, MG. & Morales-Ramos, JA. (2004). Disruption of reproductive activity of Coptotermes formosanus primary reproductives by three chitin synthesis inhibitors. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97:2015–2020.

Rojas, MG., Morales-Ramos, J., Lockwood, M., Etheridge, L., Carroll, J., Coker, C. & Knight, P. (2008). Area-wide management of subterranean termites in south Mississippi using baits. USDA-ARS Technical Bull. 1917.

Su, N.-Y. (1994). Field evaluation of a hexaflumuron bait for population suppression of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87: 389–397.

Su, N.-Y. (2005). Response of the Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to baits or nonrepellent termiticides in extended foraging arenas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98: 2143-2152.

Su, N-Y. & Scheffrahn, RH. (1988). Foraging population and territory of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in an urban environment. Sociobiology, 14: 353-359.

Su, N-Y. & Scheffrahn, RH. (1993). Laboratory evaluation of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, as bait toxicants against Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86: 1453-1457.

Su, N-Y. & Scheffrahn, RH. (1996). Comparative effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, in a bait matrix against subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 89: 1156-1160.

Su, N-Y., Thomas, EM., Ban, PM. & Scheffrahn, RH. (1995). Monitoring baiting stations to detect and eliminate foraging populations of subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) near structures. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88: 932-936.

Tamashiro, M., Yates, JR., Yamamoto, RT. & Ebesu, RH. (1991). Tunneling behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite and basalt barriers. Sociobiology, 19: 163-170.

Thoms, EM., Eger, JE., Messenger, MT., Vargo, E., Cabrera, B., Riegel, C., Murphree, S., Mauldin, J. & Scherer, P. (2009). Bugs, baits, and bureaucracy: completing the first termite bait efficacy trials (quarterly replenishment of novifumuron) initiated after adoption of Florida Rule, Chapter 5E-2.0311. American Entomologist, 55: 29-39.

Vahabzadeh, RD., Gold, RE. & Austin, JW. (2007). Effects of four chitin synthesis inhibitors on feeding and mortality of the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Sociobiology, 50: 833-859.

van Eck, WH. (1979). Mode of action of two bezoylphenyl ureas as inhibitors of chitin synthesis in insects. Insect Biochemistry, 9: 295–300.

Wang C., Henderson, G. & Gautam, BK. (2013). Lufenuron suppresses the resistance of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to entomopathogenic bacteria. Journal of Economic Entomology, 160: 1812-1818.

Zimmermann, D. & Peters, W. (1987). Fine structure and permeability of peritrophic membranes of Calliphora erythrocephala (Meigen) (Insecta: Diptera) after inhibition of chitin and protein synthesis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, 86: 353–360.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v61i1.82-87

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604