Herbicide application on Genetically Modified Maize influences bee visitation

Higor de Castro Monteiro, Michael Willian Rocha de Souza, Letícia Alves Carvalho Reis, Evander Alves Ferreira, Veríssimo Gibran Mendes de Sá, Marcus Alvarenga Soares

Abstract


Brazil is one of the world’s largest producers of maize (Zea mays L.). Cry proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic maize due to their toxicity and specificity against insects that damage crops. In addition, these plants have been stacked with different herbicide tolerance genes. Non-target insects end up being exposed to Bt proteins and herbicide applications. There is little information on the effects of Bt transgenics and their cultural practices on the behavior of pollinators in genetically modified crops. The aim of this research was to verify the impact of genotypes of genetically modified maize, Herculex®, PowerCore®, and the conventional isohybrid, pulverized or not with herbicides (atrazine, glufosinate-ammonium and nicosulfuron) in bee populations. In order to evaluate the presence of insects, a zig-zag tour was carried out throughout the experimental field, ascertained from visual analysis and direct counting of six plants per plot (the dimensions of the plots were 2.5 x 10 m with five maize lines spaced 0.50 m between rows and 0.36 m between plants) randomly, 18 days after spraying herbicides in the area. Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Tetragonisca angustula (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Trigona spinipes (F.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the pollinator species identified in the crop. It was observed that the incidence of pollinator insects varied according to cultivars and herbicides tested; however, the PowerCore® genotype experienced more visitation of pollinating bees independently of the herbicide treatments. 


Keywords


Zea mays, Transgenic, Pollinating Insects

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v66i2.3390

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