Repellent Effects of Annona Crude Seed Extract on the Asian Subterranean Termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)

Menandro N Acda


Crude seed extract of three tropical fruits belonging to the family Annonaceae, viz., sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.), soursop (A. muricata L.) and biriba (Rollinia mucosa Baill.) were investigated for their repellent effects on the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  Results of laboratory feeding bioassay (choice and no-choice) indicated that crude extract of A. squamosa, A. muricata and R. mucosa had feeding deterrent effects on C. gestroi.  Termites showed significant avoidance behavior to filter paper treated with extracts of the three Annona species investigated.  Soil barrier test revealed that Annona extracts were able to limit penetration of C. gestroi in laboratory tunneling test.  The results suggest that Annona seed extracts may offer an alternative source of natural insecticide against subterranean termites.


Termites, Annonaceae, Coptotermes gestroi, repellent, acetogenins, feeding deterrence

Full Text:



Abbott, W. S. (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18: 265-267.

Acda, M. N. (2004). Economically important termites (Isoptera) of the Philippines and their control. Sociobiology 43: 159-169.

Acda, M. N. (2009). Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas. J Insect Sci 9: 1-8.

Alali, F. Q., Kaakeh, W., Bennett, G. W. & McLaughlin, J. L. (2000). Annonaceous acetogenins as natural pesticides: potent toxicity against insecticide-susceptible and resistant German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J Nat Prod 63: 773-776.

Alford, A. R., Cullen, J. A., Storch, R. H. & Bentley, M. D. (1987). Antifeedant activity of limonin against the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 80: 575-578.

Alvarez Colom, O. A., Neske, S., Popich & Bardon, A. (2007). Toxic effects of annonaceous acetogenins from Annona cherimolia (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) on Spodopter afrugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Pest Sci 80: 63–67.

Arnason, J. T., Philogene, B. J. R. & Morand, P. (Eds.) (1989). Insecticides of Plant Origin, ACS Symposium Series 387.

Blaske, V. U. & Hertel, H. (2001). Repellent and toxic of effects of plant extracts on subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol 96: 1267-1274.

Blaske, V. U., Hertel, H. & Forschler, B. (2003). Repellent effects of isoborneol on subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in soils of different composition. J Econ Entomol 94: 1200-1208.

Chang, F.R., Chen, J. L., Chiu, H.F., Wu, M. J. & Wu, Y. C. (1997). Acetogenins from the seeds of Annona reticulata. Phytochem 47: 1057-1061.

Chen, F., Zungoli, P. A. & Benson, B. (2001). Screening of natural insecticides from tropical plants against fire ants, termites and cockroaches. Final Report. Clemson University Integrated Pest Management Program, Clemson, SC.

Cornelius, M., Grace, J. K. & Yates, J.R. (1997). Toxicity of monoterpenoids and other natural products to the Formosan subterranean termites. J Econ Entomol 90: 320-325.

Dos Santos, A.F. & Sant Ana, A. E. G. (2010). Molluscicidal properties of some species of Annona. Malaysian J Sci 29: 153-159.

Grainge, M. S., Ahmed, S., Mitchel, W. C. & Hylin, J. W. (1984). Plant species reportedly possessing pest control properties – a database. Resource System Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Guadano, A., Gutierrez, C., Pena, E., Cortes, D. & Coloma, A. (2000). Insecticidal and mutagenic evaluation of two Annonaceous acetogenins. J Nat Prod 63: 773-776.

Hoe, P. K, Yiu, P. H., Ee, G. C. L., Wong, S. C., Rajan, A. & Bong, C. F. J. (1998). Biological activity of Annona muricata seed extracts. J Econ Entomol 91: 641-649.

Isman, M. B. (2006). Botanical insecticides, deterrents and repellents in modern agriculture and increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol 51: 45-66.

Jacobson, M. (1975). Insecticides from plants: a review of literature. 1954-1971. Agriculture Handbook 461, USDA, Washington, DC. 138 pp.

Leatemia, A. J. & Isman, M.B. (2004a). Insecticidal activity of crude seed extracts of Annona spp., Lansium domesticum and Sandoricum koetjape against lepidopteran larvae. Phytoparasitica 32: 30-37.

Leatemia, J. A. & Isman, M. B. (2004b). Toxicity and antifeedant activity of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) against lepidopteran pests and natural enemies. Int J Trop Insect Sci 24: 150–158.

Leatemia, J. A. & Isman, M. B. (2005). Efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. in the greenhouse. Int J Pest Manag 50: 129–133.

Lee, K. E. & Wood, T.G. (1971). Termites and Soils. Academic Press, New York.

Lee, C. Y., Vongkaluang, C., Lenz, M., 2007. Challenges to subterranean termite management of multi-genera faunas in Southeast Asia and Australia. Sociobiology 50: 213-221.

Logan, J. W. M., Cowie, R. H. & Wood, T.G. (1990). Termite control in agriculture and forestry by non-chemical methods: a review. B Entomol Res 80: 309-330.

Magadula, J. J., Innocent, E. & Otieno, J. N. (2009). Mosquito larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of 3 Annona species and isolation of active principles. J Med Plants Res 3: 674-680.

Maistrello, L., Henderson, G. & Laine, R.A. (2001). Efficacy of vetiver oil and nootkatone as soil barriers against Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol 94: 1532-1537.

Mao, L. & Henderson, G. (2007). Antifeedant activity and acute and residual toxicity of alkaloids from Sophora flavescens (Leguminosae) against Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol 100: 866-870.

McLaughlin, J. L., Zeng, L., Oberlies, N. H., Alfonso, D., Johnson, H. A. & Cummings, B. (1997). Annonaceous acetogenins as new pesticides: recent progress, In Phytochemicals for Pest Control, Hedin, P. A., Hollingworth, R.

M., Master, E. P., Miyamoto, J., Thompson, D.G., (Eds.), ACS Symposium Series 658. Washington, DC. pp. 117-133.

Ohmura, W., Doi, S., Aoyama, M. & Ohara, S. (2000). Antifeedant activity of flavonoids and related compounds against the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus

Shiraki. J of Wood Sci 46: 149-153.

Peterson, C. J. & Wilson J. M. (2003). Catnip essential oil as a barrier to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory. J Econ Entomol 96: 1275-1282.

Pettit, G. R., Venugopal, J. R. V., Mukku, G. C., Herald, D. L., Knight, J. C. & Herald, C. L. (2008). Antineoplastic agents 558, Ampelocissus sp. cancer cell growth inhibitory constituents. J Nat Prod 71: 130–133.

Polo, M. C. Z., Figadere, B., Allardo, T., Tormo, J. R. & Cortes, D. (1998). Natural acetogenins from Annonaceace, synthesis and mechanisms of action. Phytochem 48: 1087-1117.

Roszaini, K., Nor Azah, M.A., Mailina, J., Zaini, S. & Mohammad Faridz, Z. (2013). Toxicity and antitermite activity of the essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca cajuputi and Dipterocarpus sp. against Coptotermes curvignathus. Wood Sci Technol 47: 1273-128.

Rupprecht, J. K., Hui, Y. H. & McLaughlin, J. L. (1990). Annonaceous acetogenins: review. J Nat Prod 53: 237-276

Rust, M. K. & Su, N. Y. (2012). Managing social insects of urban importance. Annu Rev Entomol 57: 355–375.

Saxena, R.C., Harshan, V., Saxena, A., Sukumaran, P., Sharma, M.C. & Kumar, M. L. (2004). Larvicidal and chemosterilant activity of Annona squamosa alkaloids against Anopheles stephensi. Int J Trop Insect Sci 24: 150-158.

Schoonhoven, L. M. (1982). Biological aspects of antifeedants. Entomol Exp App 31: 57-69.

Serit, S.I., Ishida, M., Hagiwara, N., Kim, M., Yamamoto, T. & Takahashi, S. (1992). Meliaceae and Rutaceae limonoids as termite antifeedants evaluated using Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Chem Ecol 18: 593-603.

Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, 2006. Annona: Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa, Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Sharma, R. N., V. B. Tungikar, Pawar, P. V. & Vartak, P.H. (1994). Vapor toxicity and repellency of some oils and terpenoids to the termite Odontotermes brunneus. Insect Sci App 15: 495-498.

Statgraphics Centurion XVI: User’s Manual (2010). Manugistics Inc., Rockville, MD.

Su, N. Y. & Scheffrahn, R. H. (1990). Comparison of eleven soil termiticides against the Formosan subterranean termite and Eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol 83: 1918-1924.

Van Beek, T. A. & Breteler, H., (Eds) (1993). Phytochemistry and Agriculture. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.

Watanabe, Y., Mihara, R., Mitsunaga, T. & Yoshimura, T. (2005). Termite repellent sesquiterpenoids from Callitris glaucophylla heartwood. J Wood Sci 51: 514–519.

Yoshida, S., Nakagaki, T., Igarashi, A. & Enoki, A. (2003). An anti-termite formulation for soil treatment with natural products and its efficacy against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. IRG/WP 03-30319. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Stockholm, Sweden.

Zhu, B. C. R., Henderson G., Chen F., Maistrello L. & Laine, R.A. (2001a). Nootkatone is repellent to Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). J Chem Ecol 27: 523-531.

Zhu, B. C. R., Henderson G., Chen F., Fei, H. X. & Laine, R.A. (2001b). Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect active essential oil against the Formosan subterranean termite. J Chem Ecol 27: 1617-1625.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.504