Evaluation of formic acid toxicity to subterranean termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder

Yongjian Xie, Qin Du, Qiuying Huang, Chaoliang Lei

Abstract


This study examined formic acid contact and fumigation toxicity to R. chinensis in the laboratory. In the contact toxicity bioassay, the LD50 values ranged from 267.86 to 287.68 μg adult-1 for workers, 279.09 μg adult-1 for alates (male and female) and 223.08 μg adult-1 for soldiers after 24 h, respectively. In the fumigation bioassays, the LC50 values ranged from 0.84 to 1.08 μg ml-1 for workers, 1.19 μg ml-1 for alates (male and female) and 0.57 μg ml-1 for soldiers after 24 h, respectively. At the concentration of 2.50 μg ml-1, the KT50 value of formic acid ranged from 25.38 to 34.75 min for workers, from 42.21 to 45.62 min for alates (male and female), from 32.18 to 36.37 min for soldiers. Although formic acid was significantly less toxic to subterranean termite than bifenthrin, but higher toxic to many other pest insects. The findings of this study provide important confirmation of formic acid with fumigation toxicity against termite. It may be worth investigating the use of formic acid for managing subterranean termite.

Keywords


Formic acid; contact toxicity; fumigation toxicity; R. chinensis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Attygalle A. B., J. Meinwald & T. Eisner 1992. Defensive secretion of a carabid beetle, Helluomorphoides clairvillei. J. Chem. Ecol., 18: 489-498.

Attygalle, A. B., S. R. Smedley, J. Meinwald & T. Eisner 1993. Defensive secretion of two notodontid caterpillars (Schizura unicornis, S. badia). J. Chem. Ecol., 19: 2089-2104.

Bayliss, J. & A. Fielding 2002. Termitophagous foraging by Pachycondyla analis (Formicidae: Ponerinae) in a Tanzanian coastal dry forest. Sociobiology, 39: 103-122.

Calderone, N. W. 2010. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 50: 123-132.

Chaskopoulou, A. 2007. Testing vapor toxicity of formate, acetate, and heterocyclic compounds to Aedes aegypti and Musca domestica. MS Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Chaskopoulou, A. S. Nguyen, R. M. Pereira, M. E. Scharf & P. G. Koehler 2009. Efficacy of 31 volatile low molecular weight compounds against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. J. Med. Entomol., 46: 328-334.

Chang, S. T. & S. S. Cheng 2002. Antitermitic activity of leaf essential oils and components from Cinnamomum osmophleum. J. Agr. Food Chem., 50: 1389-1392.

Chen, J., T. Rashid & G. L. Feng 2012. Toxicity of formic acid to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Pest Manag. Sci. 68: 1393-1399.

Cheng, S. S., C. L. Wu, H. T. Chang, Y. T. Kao & S. T. Chang 2004. Antitermitic and antifungal activities of essential oil of Calocedrus formosana leaf and its composition. J. Chem. Ecol., 30: 1957-1967.

Chopra, R. N. & I. C. Chopra 2006. Indigenous Drugs of India. Bimal Kumar Dhur of Academic publishers, India.

Nascimento, F. S. 2001. Behavioral responses of Mediterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) under presence effects of ant Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Zooc., 3: 195-201.

Finney, D. J. 1971. Probit Analysis, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Giovenazzo, P. & P. Dubreuil 2011. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 55: 65-76.

Haritos, V. S. & G. Dojchinov 2003. Cytochrome c oxidase inhibition in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae by formate, the toxic metabolite of alkyl formates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C ,136: 135-143.

Hölldobler, B. & E. O. Wilson 1990 The Ants. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 559-569.

Hoppe, H., W. Ritter & E. W. C. Stephen 1989. The control of parasitic bee mites: Varroa jacobsoni, Acarapis woodi, and Tropilaelaps clareae with formic acid. Am. Bee J., 129: 739-742.

Hutchens, A. R. 1992. A Handbook of Native American Herbs. Shambhala Publications, Massachusetts.

Ke, Y. L. T. Y. Zhuang, C. X. Wang, S. Zhao & W. J. Tian 2008. Agonistic behavior of six ant species to Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory assays. Sociobiology, 51: 199-206.

Kenne, M., A. Dejean, R. Fénéron & J. L. Durand 2000. Changes in worker polymorphism in Myrmicaria opaciventris Emery (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Insect. Soc., 47: 50-55.

Maistrello, L., G. Henderson & R. A. Laine 2001. Effects of nootkatone and a borate compound on formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and its symbiont protozoa. J. Entomol. Sci., 36: 229-236.

Meepagala, K. M., W. Osbrink, C. Burandt, A. Laxb & S. O. Dukea 2011. Natural-product-based chromenes as a novel class of potential termiticides. Pest Manag. Sci., 67: 1446-1450.

Nakashima, Y., & K. Shimizu 1972. Antitermitic activity of Thujopsis dolabrata var Hondai. III. Components with a termiticidal activity. Miyazaki Daigaku Nogakubu Kenkyu Hokoku, 19: 251-259.

Nelson, D., P. Mills, P. Sporns, S. Ooraikul & D. Mole 1994. Formic acid application methods for the control of honey bee tracheal mites. Bee Sci., 3: 128-134.

Nicholls, P. 1975. Formate as an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase. Bioch. Biophys. Res. Commun., 67: 610-616.

Nguyen, S. N., C. Song & M. E. Scharf 2007. Toxicity, synergism, and neurological effects of novel volatile insecticides in insecticide susceptible and resistant Drosophila strains. J. Econ. Entomol., 100: 534-544.

Potter, M. F. 1997. Termites, in Handbook of Pest Control, 8th edition, ed. by Hedges SA. Franzak & Foster, Cleveland, OH, pp. 233-333.

Petersen, L. C. 1977. The effect of inhibitors on the oxygen kinetics of cytochrome c oxidase. Bioch. Biophys. Acta, 460: 299-307.

Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M. S. Hossan, S. Seraj, M. M. Rahman, A. R. Chowdhury, Z. U. M. E. U. Miajee, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. I. Jahan & M. A. Khatun 2010. A Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants used by Several Tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh to Treat Helminthic Infections. Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., 4: 105-111.

Robertson, J. L., R. M. Russell, H. K. Preisler & N. E. Savin 2007. Bioassays with Arthropods, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Rossini, C., A. B. Attygalle, A. Gonzalez, S. R. Smedley, M. Eisner, J. Meinwald & T. Eisner 1997. Defensive production of formic acid (80 percent) by a carabid beetle (Galerita lecontei). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 6792-6797.

Scharf, M. E., S. N. Nguyen & C. Song 2006. Evaluation of volatile low molecular weight insecticides using Drosophila melanogaster as a model. Pest Manag. Sci., 62: 655-633.

Sharma, O. P., R. Garg & G. S. Dogra 1983. Efficacy of formic acid against Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Indian Bee J., 45: 1-2.

Song, C. & M. E. Scharf 2008a. Formic acid: a neurologically-active, hydrolyzed metabolite of insecticidal formate esters. Pest. Biochem. Physiol., 92: 77-82.

Song, C. & M. E. Scharf 2008b. Neurological disruption by low molecular weight compounds from the heterobicyclic and formate ester classes. Pest. Biochem. Physiol., 92: 92-100.

Song, C. & M. E. Scharf 2009. Mitochondrial impacts of insecticidal formate esters in insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Drosophila melanogaster. Pest Manag. Sci., 65: 697-703.

Su, N.Y. & R. H. Scheffrahn 1998. A review of subterranean termite control practices and prospects for integrated pest management programmes. Integr. Pest Manag. Rev., 3: 1-13.

Underwood, R. M. & R. W. Currie 2004. Indoor winter fumigation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) with formic acid is a potential control alternative in northern climates. J. Econ. Entomol., 97: 177-186.

Underwood, R. M. & R. W. Currie 2005. Effect of concentration and exposure time on treatment efficacy against Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) during indoor winter fumigation of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with formic acid. J. Econ. Entomol., 98: 1802-1809.

Underwood, R. M. & R. W. Currie 2007. Effects of release pattern and room ventilation on survival of varroa mites and queens during indoor winter fumigation of honey bee colonies with formic acid. Can. Entomol., 139: 881-893.

UNEP/FAO/Global IPM Facility Expert Group on Termite Biology and Management, 2000. Finding alternatives to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for termite management, online at www.chem.unep.ch/pops/termites/termite_ch4.htm.

vanEngelsdorp, D., R. M. Underwood & D. L. Cox-Foster 2008. Short-term fumigation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with formic and acetic acids for the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 101: 256-264.

Verma, M., S. Sharma & R. Prasad 2009. Biological alternatives for termite control: A review. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., 63: 959-972.

Weatherston J., J. E. Percy, L. M. MacDonald & J. A. MacDonald 1979 Morphology of the prothoracic defensive gland of Schizura concinna (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) and the nature of its secretion. J. Chem. Ecol., 5:165-177

Wei, J. Q., J. C. Mo, X. J. Wang & W. G. Mao 2007. Biology and ecology of Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in China. Sociobiology, 50: 553-559.

Will K. W., A. S. Gill, H. Lee & A. B. Attygalle 2010. Quantification and evidence for mechanically metered release of pygidial secretions in formic acid producing carabid beetles. J. Insect Sci., 10: 1-17.

Welling, W. & G. D. Paterson 1985. Toxicodynamics of insecticides, in Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 12, ed. by Kerkut GA and Gilbert LI. Pergamon, Oxford, UK, pp. 603-646.

Wilson, W.T., J. R. Baxter, A. M. Collins, R. L. Cox & T. D. Cardoso 1993. Formic acid fumigation for control of tracheal mites in honey bee colonies. Bee Sci., 3: 26-32.

Yoshida, S., Y. Morita, K. Narita & T. Okabe 1998. Termiticidal efficacy of neutral oil obtained from Aomori hiba. Tennen Yuki Kagobutsu Toronkai Koen Yoshishu, 40: 311-315.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v60i4.453-458

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604