Nesting sites, nest density and spatial distribution of Melipona colimana Ayala (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in two highland zones of western, Mexico

Jose Octavio Macias-Macias, Javier Quezada-Euan, Jose Maria Tapia-Gonzalez, Francisca Conteras-Escareño

Abstract


Melipona colimana is endemic to the temperate forests of western Mexico and may be in conservation risk due to forest exploitation. Differences between the density of nests, nesting sites and spatial distribution in two places with different levels of human disturbance were established. A preserved (C) and a disturbed area (P) were identified and it was determined that nest density, nesting sites and the number of potential nest sites were predominant in the C zone. In total, 27 of 30 colonies were found on oak trees (Quercus laurina) with a diameter at breast height of 183.4 ± 34.21 cm which shows a close relationship of this bee species with this type of tree. A positive correlation between the DBH of the nesting sites in relation to the trees with nests and the presence of cavities was found. It was determined that the nests are distributed in the form of aggregates in both zones (R = 0.31 and 0.39) with a density of 0.17 hˉ¹ and 0.04 hˉ¹ colonies. Forestry exploitation seems to be affecting wild populations since the tree that bees use as nesting sites are destroyed; that is why it is recommended to implement a preservation program and a sustainable management of this species.


Keywords


Melipona colimana, nest density, spatial distribution, Quercus laurina, Jalisco, México.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v61i4.423-427

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