Worldwide Spread of the Moorish sneaking Ant, Cardiocondyla mauritanica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

James Kelly Wetterer

Abstract


Cardiocondyla spp. are small, inconspicuous ants, native to the Old World. Until recently, Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel, 1890 was a little known species recorded almost exclusively from the semi-arid subtropics of North Africa, the Middle East, and neighboring islands. In contrast, Cardiocondyla nuda Mayr, 1866 was considered a cosmopolitan tramp species, spread broadly around the world through human commerce. A recent taxonomic reanalysis by B. Seifert, however, found genuine C. nuda restricted to Australia, New Guinea, and Western Oceania, and that published records of ‘C. nuda’ from outside this region were based on misidentifications of other species, notably C. mauritanica. In addition, Cardiocondyla ectopia, known from North America, was found to be a junior synonym of C. mauritanica. Here, I examine theworldwide spread of C. mauritanica. I compiled published and unpublished C. mauritanica specimen records from >250 sites, documenting the earliest known records for 47 geographic areas (countries, island groups, major islands, and US states), including several for which I found no previously published records: Barbados, Bonaire, Curaçao, Grenada, Saba, and Saudi Arabia. Cardiocondyla mauritanica is found primarily in semi-arid and urban environments. Cardiocondyla mauritanica shows an apparently continuous distribution and geographic variation in morphology from northwest Africa to India suggesting that C. mauritanica is native throughout this subtropical expanse. Old World records of C. mauritanica far from this range come from Ascension, Zimbabwe, and several Indo-Pacific islands. The sole temperate record of C. mauritanica comes from Ukraine. Cardiocondyla mauritanica was first found in the New World in 1967, and has spread through the southwestern US, northern Mexico, Florida, and the West Indies. Part of the success of C. mauritanica in exotic locales may relate to its ability to co-exist with dominant invasive ants, such as the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868).


Keywords


biogeography; biological invasion; exotic species; invasive species

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashmole, N.P. & M.J. Ashmole 1997. The land fauna of Ascension island: new data from caves and lava flows, and a reconstruction of the prehistoric ecosystem. Journal of Biogeography 24:549-589.

Barquín, J. 1981. Las hormigas de Canarias. Taxonomía, ecología y distribución de lós Formicidae. Colección Monograficas, Secretariado de Publicacíones de la Universidad de La Laguna 3:1-584.

Bolton B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmicine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissothorax, Messor and Catalaucus. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 45/4:307-370.

Cagniant, H. 1962. Etude de quelque fourmi marocaines. Statistique provisoire dês Formicidae du Maroc. Bulletin de la Societé d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 53:83-118.

Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisee des fourmis du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:193-200.

Cagniant, H. & X. Espadaler 1993. Liste des espèces de fourmis du Maroc. Actes dês Colloques Insectes Sociaux 8:89-93.

Collingwood, C.A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7:230-302.

Collingwood, C.A. & D. Agosti 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (Part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385.

Comín, P. & V. Furió 1986. Distribución biogeográfica de las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en las islas del mediterráneo occidental. Bolleti de la Societat d’Historia Natural de Les Balears 30:67-79.

Delye, G. & J.C. Bonaric 1973. Les fourmis arenicoles du sud marocain (Hym. Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 3:107-110.

Deyrup, M., L. Davis, & S. Cover 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126:293-326.

Emery, C. 1884. Materiali per lo studio della fauna Tunisina raccolti da G. e L. Doria. III. Rassegna delle formiche della Tunisia. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2)1(21):373-386

Emery, C. 1891. Revision critique des fourmis de la Tunisie. Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Zoologie-Hyménoptères. Imprimerie Nationale, Paris. 21 pp.

Emery, C. 1909. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.). Teil VI. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1909:19-37.

Espadaler, X. & Bernal, V. 2003. Exotic ants in the Canary Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vieraea 31:1-7.

Forel, A. 1890. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l’Algérie orientale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique, Comptes-rendus des Seances 34:61-76.

Forel, A. 1904. Miscellanea myrmécologiques. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 12:1-52.

Forel, A. 1911. Une colonie polycalique de Formica sanguinea sans esclaves dans le canton de Vaud. Memoires 1er Congrès International d’Entomologie 2:101-104.

Gómez, K. & Espadaler, X. 2006. Exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Balearic Islands. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:225-233

Guillem, R. 2008. The ants of Gibraltar. Gibraltar Nature News 14:8-9.

Gulmahamad, H. 1997. Ecological studies on Cardiocondyla ectopia Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in southern California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 73:21-27.

Heinze, J. 1997. Male reproductive strategies in ants. pp. 179-187 in Kipyatkov, V.E. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Colloquia on Social Insects. Socium, St. Petersburg.

Heinze, J. 1999. Male polymorphism in the ant species Cardiocondyla minutior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 23:251- 258

Heinze, J., S. Cremer, N. Eckl & A. Schrempf 2006. Stealthy invaders: the biology of Cardiocondyla tramp ants. Insectes Sociaux 53:1-7.

Heinze, J., S. Kühnholz, K. Schilder & B. Hölldobler 1993. Behavior of ergatoid males in the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda. Insectes Sociaux 40:273-282.

Izhaki, I., B. Idelovich, R. Laster & Y. Ofer 2009. the impact of macro- vs. micro-environmental factors on the structure of ant communities inhabiting east-mediterranean Aleppo pine forests. Israel Journal of Entomology 39:129-146.

Karawajew, W. 1911. Ameisen aus Transkaspien und Turkestan. Trudy Russkago Entomologicheskago Obshchestva 39:1-72.

Mayr, G. 1908. Ameisen aus Tripolis und Barka. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 26:415-418.

Mei, M. 1995. Arthropoda di Lampedusa, Linosa e Pantelleria (Canale di Sicilia, Mar Mediterraneo). Hymenoptera Formicidae (con diagnosi di due nuove specie). Il Naturalista Siciliano 4:753-772.

Menozzi, C. 1933. Le formiche della Palestina. Memorie della Societa Entomologica Italiana 12:49-113.

Mohamed, S., S. Zalat, H. Fadl, S. Gadalla & M. Sharaf 2001. Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Natural History 3:40-61.

O’Keefe, S.T., J.L. Cook, T. Dudek, D.F. Wunneburger, M.D. Guzman, R.N. Coulson & S.B. Vinson 2000. The distribution of Texas ants. Southwestern Entomologist. Supplement 22:1-93.

Oettler, J., M. Suefuji & J. Heinze 2010. The evolution of alternative reproductive tactics in male Cardiocondyla ants. Evolution 64:3310-3317.

Ortiz, F.J. & A. Tinaut 1987. Citas nuevas o interesantes de formícidos (Hym. Formicidae) para Andalucía. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 11:31-34.

Pisarski, B. 1967. Fourmis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d’Afghanistan récoltées par M. Dr. K. Lindberg. Annales Zoologici 24:375-425.

Radchenko, A. 2004. Fauna Europaea: Formicidae. In Noyes, J. (ed.) Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera. Fauna Europaea version 1.1: , retrieved on 13 December 2010.

Reyes-López, J., C. Ordóñez-Urbano & S. Carpintero-Ortega 2008. Relación actualizada de las hormigas alóctonas de Andalucía (Sur de España). Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 32:81-94.

Rojas-Fernández, P. 2001. Las hormigas del suelo en México: Diversidad, distribución e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoológica Mexicana 1:189-238.

Seifert, B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 104(B):203-338.

Seifert, B. 2008. Cardiocondyla atalanta Forel, 1915, a cryptic sister species of Cardiocondyla nuda (Mayr, 1866) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11:43-48.

Snelling, R.R. 1974. Studies on California ants. 8. A new species of Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 82:76- 81.

Taylor, B. 2010. The ants of Egypt (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). , retrieved on 13 December 2010.

Ward, P.S. 2005. A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936:1-68.

Wetterer, J.K. 2012. Worldwide spread of Emery’s sneaking ant, Cardiocondyla emeryi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 17:13-20.

Wetterer, J.K., X. Espadaler, A. L. Wetterer, D. Aguin-Pombo & A.M. Franquinho-Aguiar. 2007a. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Madeiran Archipelago. Sociobiology 49: 265-297.

Wetterer, J.K., X. Espadaler, P. Ashmole, C. Cutler & J. Endeman. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37.

Wetterer, J.K., P.S. Ward, A. L. Wetterer, J. T. Longino, J.C. Trager, and S.E. Miller. 2000. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Santa Cruz Island, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 99: 25-31.

Wilson, E.O. & R.W. Taylor 1967. Ants of Polynesia. Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1- 109.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v59i3.561

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604