Revision of the African Ants of the Bothroponera pumicosa Species Complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae)

Abdulmeneem Joma, William P. Mackay

Abstract


African ants are poorly known, especially Afrotropical ants of the subfamily Ponerinae, despite recent advances. The genus Bothroponera (Ponerinae) includes the pumicosa, talpa and sulcata species complexes. We here present a revision of members of the pumicosa species complex. These ants can be characterized by having coarsely foveolate sculpture and by having either a raised a “v” or “u” shaped anterior medial border of the clypeus (anteclypeus), with or without a carina. Members of this complex lack the metatibial gland on the anterior side of the lower metatibia. Species in the Bothroponera pumicosa species complex are mainly distributed in the southern part of Africa. They include: Bothroponera aspera Arnold, 1962 (stat. nov.), B. berthoudi (Forel, 1901) (= variolosa syn. nov.), B. cariosa Emery, 1895, B. cavernosa (Roger, 1860), B. granosa (Roger, 1860), B. laevissima (Arnold, 1915), B. montivaga Arnold, 1947 (stat. nov.), B. pumicosa (Roger, 1860), B. strigulosa Emery, 1895, and B. umgodikulula Joma and Mackay, 2013. A key to the workers with diagnoses and comparisons is provided, together with illustrations of each species and colored photographs of the species, as well as maps and the distributions of each species.


Keywords


Afrotropical; Conservation; Biodiversity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anchor Environmental Consultants. (2006). State of the Bay 2006: Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon. Technical Report. Prepared for Saldanha Bay Water Quality Trust (pp 127) Prepared by: L. Atkinson, K. Hutchings, B. Clark, J. Turpie, N. Steffani, T. Robinson & A. Duffell-Canham. From http://anchorenvironmental.co.za/Documents/Pdfs/State%20of%20the%20Bay%20Report%202006.pdf

Anchor Environmental Consultants. (2012). State of the Bay 2011: Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon. Prepared for Saldanha Bay Water Quality Trust (pp 271) Prepared by: B.M. Clark, K. Tunley, K. Hutchings, N. Steffani and J. Turpie, C. Jurk & J. Gericke, September 2012. http://www.anchorenvironmental.co.za/Documents/Pdfs/Saldanha%20State%20of%20the%20Bay/State%20of%20the%20Bay%20Report%202011-Final.pdf

Ant wiki, Mozambique, http://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Mozambique (accessed May 2013).

Arnold, G. (1915). A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae; Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum, 14: 1-159.

Arnold, G. (1926). A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Appendix. Annals of the South African Museum, 23: 191-295.

Arnold, G. (1947). New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 7. Occasional Papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia 2: 131-167.

Arnold, G. (1952). New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 10. Occasional Papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia 2: 460-493.

Arnold, G. (1960). New species of African Hymenoptera No. 15. Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia No. 24B: 452-488.

Arnold, G. (1962). New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 16. Occasional Papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia. Biological Natural Sciences 3: 844-855.

Bolton, B. (1994). Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World (pp 222) Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, USA.

Bolton, B. (1995). A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World (pp 504) Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, USA.

Bolton, B. (2012). The Catalogue of Family-group (suprageneric) Taxa. Online http://gap.entclub.org/archive/Bolton_NGC_2012_JAN.pdf (accessed 05/12/2013).

Braschler, B., Chown, S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2012). The Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes do not have exceptional local ant richness. PLoS ONE 7(3): e31463. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031463

Burgess, N.D., Amico Hales, J., Underwood, E., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Itoua, I., Schipper, J., Ricketts, T. & Newman, K. (2004). Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment (pp 501) World Wildlife Fund, Island Press, United States.

Country Briefs: Mozambique, http://webarchive.iiasa.ac.at/Research/POP/pde/briefs/mz-geo.html (accessed May 2013).

Dalla Torre, K.W. von. (1893). Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7 (pp 289) Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann.

Department of Environmental Affairs & Development Planning (in partnership with the National Department of Environmental Affairs) (2011). Environmental Management Framework for the Greater Saldanha Bay Area, South Africa (pp 64). Unpublished document.

Dubel Integrated Environmental Services. (2009). Description of the Natural Environment and Biodiversity Impact Assessment of the Planned Vele Colliery, Musina Municipality; Vhembe District; Limpopo Province (pp 97), Prepared for: Coal of Africa Limited. By: Dubel Integrated Environmental Services G. P. Nel and E. J. Nel, April 2009. http://www.coalofafrica.com/assets/vele-documents/S24G-application-1/Volume%202%20Specialist%20Studies/Annexure%205%20Biodiversity%20Impact%20Assessment.pdf

Emery, C. (1895). Voyage de M. E. Simon dans l'Afrique austral (janvier-avril 1893). 3e mémoire. Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 64: 15-56.

Emery, C. (1901). Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 45: 32-54.

Emery, C. (1911). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.

Farrier, D., Harvey, M., Da Silva, S., Leuzinger, M.D., Verschuuren, J., Gromilova, M., Trouwborst, A. & Paterson, A.R. (2013). The legal aspects of connectivity conservation: case studies. (pp 128) Switzerland: IUCN. http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2151&context=lhapapers

Forel, A. (1890). Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34: cii-cxiv.

Forel, A. (1901). Nouvelles espèces de Ponerinae. (Avec un nouveau sous-genre et une espèce nouvelle d'Eciton). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 9: 325-353.

Forel, A. (1913a). Fourmis de Rhodésie, etc. récoltées par M. G. Arnold, le Dr. H. Brauns et K. Fikendey. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 57: 108-147.

Forel, A. (1913b). Formicides du Congo Belge récoltés par MM. Bequaert, Luja, etc. Revue Zoologique Africaine (Brussels) 2: 306-351.

Giliomee, J.H. (2003). Insect diversity in the Cape Floristic Region. African Journal of Ecology, 41: 237 - 244. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2028.2003.00442.x

Goschen, W.S. & Schumann, E.H. (1988). Ocean current and temperatures in Algoa Bay and beyond in November 1986. South African Journal of Marine Science 7: 101–116. DOI:10.2989/025776188784379198

Joma, A.M.A. & Mackay, W.P. (2013). A new species of Afrotropical ants in the genus Bothroponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Psyche 2013: 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/917847

Keller, R.A. (2011). A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 355: 1–90. doi: 10.1206/355.

Kimberley web 1, http://www.bdb.co.za/kimberley/climate.htm, (accessed 05/22/2013).

Kimberley web 2, http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/u/UA68438.php, (accessed 05/22/2013).

Kimberley web 3, http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantab/acaciaeriol.htm, (accessed 05/22/2013).

Mayr, G. (1862). Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 649-776.

Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M.C. (2008). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South Africa National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. Springer, Vol. 43, No. 4: 461-463. URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23064490 .

Picker, M.D. & Samways M.J. (1996). Fauna1 diversity and endemicity of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa - a first assessment. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 591-606. DOI : 10.1007/BF00137611

Raffray, A. (1887). Pselaphides nouveaux ou peu connus. Revue d'Entomologie 6 (part i) (31): 18-37.

Roger, J. (1860). Die Ponera-artigen Ameisen. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 4: 278 - 312.

Rouget, M., Reyers, B., Jonas, Z., Desmet, P., Driver, A., Maze, K., Egoh, B., Cowling, R.M., Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M.C. (2004). South African National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004: Technical Report. Volume 1: Terrestrial Component. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/pssa/articles/features/no57.htm

Santschi, F. (1914). Meddelanden från Göteborgs Musei Zoologiska Afdelning. 3. Fourmis du Natal et du Zoulouland récoltées par le Dr. I. Trägårdh. Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samhälles Handlingar 15: 1-44.

Schils, T., De Clerck, O., Leliaert, F., Bolton, J.J. & Coppejans, E. (2001). The change in macroalgal assemblages through the Saldanha Bay/Langebaan Lagoon ecosystem (South Africa). Botanica Marina Vol. 44, (3): 295-305. dx.doi.org/10.1515/BOT.2001.038

Schmidt C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. (2014). The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa, 3817 (1): 1–242. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3647.2.1.

Serna, F. & Mackay, W. (2010). A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Science 10: 111. DOI: 10.1673/031.010.11101

Singer, R. (1954). The Saldanha Skull from Hopefield, South Africa, A modified form of this paper was read on behalf of the author by Dr. W. L. Straus, Jr., at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Yellow Springs, Ohio, on March 27, 1954. http://in-africa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Singer-1954-AJPA-Saldanha-skull-vol-12.pdf

Stitz, H. (1910). Westafrikanische Ameisen. I. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 125-151.

The Ants of Africa website, http://antsofafrica.org, Taylor (2005). accessed March 2014.

Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. (1971). The larvae of the ant genus Bothroponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 73: 386 - 394.

Wheeler, W.M. (1922). Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition (pp 1004) Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v62i4.845

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JCR Impact Factor 2018: 0.604