Effects of Colors and Appearance of the Potential Aggressor on Defensive Behavior of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Colonies.


  • Jerzy Nadolski Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Natural History Museum, University of Łódź, Kilińskiego 101, 90–011 Łódź, Poland.




Social wasps, Defence behaviour, Hymenoptera, Vespinae, The European hornet, Vespa crabro


Defensive behavior of the European hornet Vespa crabro colonies were studied using the dummy and balloons in different colors. The strong aggressiveness level of hornet's workers was caused by dark colors (black and brown) and orange. The colors white and green did not cause their attack. However, the strongest reactions of hornets were caused by dummy with the animal snout and dark hair on the head. Thus people who are near wasp colonies should have clothes in white or green and hair obscured but when the whole nest is eliminate, they have to have a safe outfit properly constructed.


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How to Cite

Nadolski, J. (2013). Effects of Colors and Appearance of the Potential Aggressor on Defensive Behavior of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Colonies. Sociobiology, 60(4), 466–470. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v60i4.466-470



Research Article - Wasps