The botanical profiles of dried bee pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) in Brazil


  • Alex Freitas Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Vanilda Aparecida Soares de Arruda Universidade de São Paulo
  • Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian Universidade de São Paulo
  • Ortrud Monika Barth Fundação Oswaldo Cruz



palynology, bee flora, pollen batches, Brazil


A total of 61 dried bee pollen samples collected in four Brazilian macro-regions within 19 municipalities were analyzed to identify the sources used by Apis mellifera (L.) for pollen production and to enable a more accurate product certification. Sample preparation followed the standard methodology, including washing the pollen grains with ethanol and then with water and homogenising the sediment in a water/glycerine solution for microscopic observation. Pollen counts included at least 500 pollen grains per sample. Only six samples, presenting a unique species or pollen type comprising more than 90% of the pollen sum, were considered monofloral, including Ambrosia sp., Cecropia sp.,Eucalyptus sp., Fabaceae, Mimosa scabrella (Benth.) spp. and Schinus sp. pollen types. The most frequent pollen types of the heterofloral pollen batches, based on a counting limit of 45%, included Anadenanthera sp., Asteraceae,Brassica sp., Caesalpiniaceae, Cocos nucifera (L.) sp., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (Benth.) sp., Mimosa verrucosa(Benth.) sp., and Myrcia sp. pollen types. This result may be related to the great diversity of the Brazilian flora contributing to heterofloral pollen loads and honeys.


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How to Cite

Freitas, A., Arruda, V. A. S. de, Almeida-Muradian, L. B. de, & Barth, O. M. (2013). The botanical profiles of dried bee pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) in Brazil. Sociobiology, 60(1), 56–64.



Research Article - Bees

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