A Checklist of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Pakistan


  • Muhammad Tariq Rasheed PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan
  • Imran Bodlah PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan
  • Ammara Gull e Fareen PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan
  • Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo Department of Zoology, Government Degree College, Shopian, Jammu & Kashmir, 192303, India
  • Xiaolei Huang Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
  • Shahid Ali Akbar Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, 191132 India




Formicidae, Ants, Pakistan, Endemism, Tramp species, new records.


The present paper provides an updated checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Pakistan. These include seven of the 21 known extant subfamilies with 101 valid ant species in 33 genera. Five species are reported for the first time from Pakistan: Cardiocondyla wroughtonii Forel, 1890; Crematogaster biroi Mayr, 1897; Ooceraea biroi (Forel, 1907); Pseudoneoponera rufipes Jerdon, 1851 and Strumigenys godeffroyi Mayr, 1866. Images to scientifically validate new faunal records from Pakistan and facilitate prompt identification are provided. Among the newly recorded species, three species viz., C. wroughtonii; O. biroi and S. godeffroyi are considered as tramp species having the cosmopolitan distribution. Notes about type localities, depositories and distribution in Pakistan are provided to each species record. The list provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomical work carried out until now and will serve as a baseline survey for future studies.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Tariq Rasheed, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan

Department of Entomology

Ph.D Student

Imran Bodlah, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan

 Assistant Professor 

Department of Entomology

Ammara Gull e Fareen, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rwalpindi,Pakistan

Department of Entomology

Ph.D Student

Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo, Department of Zoology, Government Degree College, Shopian, Jammu & Kashmir, 192303, India

Department of Zoology

Assistant Professor

Xiaolei Huang, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China

State key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection


Shahid Ali Akbar, Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, 191132 India

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, 191132 India



Andersen, A. N., Hertog, T. & Woinarski, J. C. Z. (2006). Long-term fire exclusion and ant community structure in an Australian tropical savanna: congruence with vegetation succession, Journal of Biogeogrphy. 33(5): 823-832. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01463.x.

Andersen, A. N. & Majer, J. D. (2004). Ants show the way Down Under: invertebrates as bioindicators in land management, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2 (6): 291-298. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0292:ASTWDU]2.0.CO;2.

André, E. (1883). Les fourmis. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie. Tome Deuxième. Beaune. 919 + 48 p.

AntWeb. (2018). Bolton World Catalog. https://www.antweb.org/project.do?name=worldants. (Accessed date: 12 December, 2018).

Anwar, M. & Shank, C.C. (2002). In Biodiversity Planning in Asia-A Review of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) (Reid, J.C. (ed.). International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 594p.

Aslam, M., Shaheen, F. A. & Ayyaz, A. (2006). Management of Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus in Stored Chickpea Through Interspecific and Intraspecific Predation by Ants. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(1): 85-89.

Baig, M.B. & Al-Subaiee, F.S. (2011). Biodiversity in Pakistan: Key issues. Biodiversity, 10 (4): 20-29; https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2009.9712858.

Baroni Urbani, C. (1977). Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae Genus Stenamma, con una nuova specie del Kashmir. Entomologica Basiliensa. 2: 415-422.

Baroni Urbani, C. & de Andrade, M. L. (2003). The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo regionale di scienze naturali (Turin) 36: 1-492.

Bharti, H. (2012). Two new species of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from the Himalaya. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 155:9-14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/004074912X631742.

Bharti, H., Sasi, S. & Radchenko, A. (2016). Biogeography and Ecology of Myrmica species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Himalayan regions. Sociobiology 63(3): 956-975. doi: 10.13102/sociobiology.v63i3.1145

Bingham, C. T. (1903). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 p.

Bodlah, I., Rasheed, M. T., Fareen, A. G., Ajmal, M. S. & Bodlah, M. A. (2016). First record of two new species of genus Tetraponera (Hymenoptera: Pseudomyrmecinae: Formicidae) from Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 4(4): 1028-1030.

Bodlah, I., Bodlah, M.A., Rasheed, M.T., Akhter, T., Aihetasham, A. & Yousaf, M. (2017a).

New distributional records of psyllid, Trioza fletcheri minor Crawford, 1912 and record of its first association with two ant’s species in Pothwar. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 5 (1):1-6.

Bodlah, I., Rasheed, M.T. & Bodlah, M.A. (2017b). New distributional records of Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon) from Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 5 (2):56-59

Bolton, B. (1977). The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology. 36: 67-151.

Brown, W.L. Jr. (1959). Appendix G. Insecta collected by the expedition. 229-230 p in Field, H. 1959. An Anthropological Reconnaissance in West Pakistan, 1955, with appendixes on the archaeology and natural history of Baluchistan and Bahawalpur. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Harvard University 52: i-xii, 1-332.

Collingwood, C. A. (1982). Himalayan ants of the genus Lasius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology. 7: 283-296.

Cox, C. B. & Moore, P.O. (1993). Biogeography: An Evolutionary Approach. London: Blackwell Scientific. Oxford.

Csösz, S., Radchenko, A. & Schulz, A. (2007). Taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Tetramorium chefketi species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa. 1405:1-38.

Dalla Torre, K. W. von. (1893). Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 p.

Del Toro, I., Ribbons, R. R. & Pelini, S. L. (2012). The little things that run the world revisited: a review of ant-mediated ecosystem services and dis¬services (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Myrmecological News 17: 133-146.

Dlussky, G. M. (1965). Ants of the genus Formica L. of Mongolia and northeast Tibet (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annals of Zoology. (Warsaw) 23: 15-43.

Donisthorpe, H. (1933). A new species of Aphaenogaster (Hym. Formicidae) from India. In Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series B. 2: 24p.

DuBois, M. B. (1998). A revision of the ant genus Stenamma in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 29: 193-403.

Eidmann, H. (1942). Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna des Nanga Parbat. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere, 75: 239-266.

Emery, C. (1893). Voyage de M. E. Simon à l'île de Ceylan (janvier-février 1892). Formicides. Entomological Society of America. 62: 239-258.

Emery, C. (1895). Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. LXIII. Formiche di Birmania del Tenasserim e dei Monti Carin raccolte da L. Fea. Parte II. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria. (Genova) 2: 450-483.

Emery, C. (1901). Ameisen gesammelt in Ceylon von Dr. W. Horn 1899. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 1901: 113-122.

Emery, C. (1925). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302.

Fabricius, J. C. (1787). Mantissa insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus, genericis, differentiis, specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. Tome I. Hafniae [= Copenhagen]: C. G. Proft, 348 p.

Fabricius, J. C. (1793). Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2. Hafniae [= Copenhagen]: C. G. Proft, 519 p.

Fabricius, J. C. (1798). Supplementum entomologiae systematicae. Hafniae [= Copenhagen]: Proft and Storch, 572 p.

Fabricius, J. C. (1804). Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunswick: C. Reichard, xiv + 15-439 + 30 p.

Foerster, A. (1850). Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae. Aachen: Ernst Ter Meer, 74 p.

Folgarait, P.J. (1998). Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review, Biodiversity Conservation. 7: 1221-1244. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008891901953.

Forel, A. (1886). Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 30: 131-215.

Forel, A. (1890a). Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Forel, A. (1886). Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 34:lxi-lxxvi.

Forel, A. (1890b). Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 34:cii-cxiv.

Forel, A. (1892a). Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part I. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 7: 219-245.

Forel, A. (1892b). Notes myrmécologiques. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 36: 38-43.

Forel, A. 1894. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IV The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 8: 396-420.

Forel, A. (1895). Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part V The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 9: 453-472.

Forel, A. (1901a). Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VIII. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 13:462-477.

Forel, A. (1901b). Formiciden des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Hamburg. Neue Calyptomyrmex-, Dacryon-, Podomyrma- und Echinopla-Arten. Mitt. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg. 18: 43-82.

Forel, A. (1902a). Variétés myrmécologiques. . Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 46: 284-296.

Forel, A. (1902b). Myrmicinae nouveaux de l'Inde et de Ceylan. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 10: 165-249.

Forel, A. (1904). Miscellanea myrmécologiques. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 12: 1-52.

Forel, A. (1907). Formicides du Musée National Hongrois. Annales Historico-Natureles Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 5: 1-42.

G.O.P. (1999). Biodiversity Action Plan of Pakistan.Ministry of Environment/ the International Union for Conservation of Nature and World Wildlife Fund. Islamabad.

Gibb, H., Sanders, N.J., Dunn, R.R., Watson, S., Photakis, M., Abril, S., Andersen, A.N., Angulo, E., Armbrecht, I., Arnan, X., Baccaro, F.B. Bishop, T.R., Boulay, R., Castracani, C., Del Toro, I., Delsinne, T., Diaz, M., Donoso, D.A., Enríquez, M.L., Fayle, T.M., Feener, D.H., Fitzpatrick, M.C., Gómez, C., Grasso, D.A., Groc, S., Heterick, B., Hoffmann, B.D., Lach, L., Lattke, J., Leponce, M., Lessard, J.P., Longino, J., Lucky, A., Majer, J., Menke, S.B., Mezger, D., Mori, A., Munyai, T.C., Paknia, O., Pearce-Duvet, J., Pfeiffer, M., Philpott, S.M., de Souza, J.L.P., Tista, M., Vasconcelos, H.L., Vonshak, M. & Parr, C.L. (2015). Climate mediates the effects of distur¬bance on ant assemblage structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 282: 20150418. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.0418.

Guénard, B., Weiser, M., Gomez, K., Narula, N. & Economo, E.P. (2017). The Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics (GABI) database: a synthesis of ant species geographic distributions. Myrmecological News 24: 83-89.

Guérin-Méneville, F. E. (1844). Iconographie du règne animal de G. Cuvier, ou représentation d'après nature de l'une des espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurées, de chaque genre d'animaux. Insectes. Paris: J. B. Baillière, 576 p.

Janicki, J., Narula, N., Ziegler, M., Guénard, B. & Economo, E.P. (2016). Visualizing and interacting with large-volume biodiversity data using client-server web-mapping applications: The design and implementation of antmaps.org. Ecological Informatics 32: 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2016.02.006.

Jerdon, T. C. (1851). A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India. Madras Journal of Literature and Science. 17: 103-127.

Karavaiev, V. (1911). Ameisen aus Transkaspien und Turkestan. Trudy Russkago Entomologicheskago Obshchestva , 39: 1-72.

Laciny, A., Pal, A. & Zettel, H. (2015). Taxonomic notes on the ant genus Diacamma Mayr, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), part 1. Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 67:83-136.

Latreille, P. A. (1798). Essai sur l'histoire des fourmis de la France. Brive: F. Bourdeaux, 50 p.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [= Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 824 p.

Li-Zhong, H. (2006). List of Chinese insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press. 540 p.

Mani, M. S. & Singh, S., (1962). Entomological Survey of Himalya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 59(1): 84-85.

Mayr, G. (1855). Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im ”sterreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Ameisen. Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5: 273-478.

Mayr, G. (1861). Die Europäischen Formiciden. (Ameisen.): 80 p. Wien.

Mayr, G. (1866a). Diagnosen neuer und wenig gekannter Formiciden. Verhandlungen der k.k. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 16: 885-908.

Mayr, G. (1866b). Myrmecologische Beiträge. Sitzungsberichte der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 53: 484-517.

Mayr, G. (1879). Beiträge zur Ameisen-Fauna Asiens. Verhandlungen der k.k. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 28: 645-686.

Mayr, G. (1897). Formiciden aus Ceylon und Singapur. Természetrajzi Füzetek 20: 420-436.

Menozzi, C. (1939). Formiche dell'Himalaya e del Karakorum raccolte dalla Spedizione italiana comandata da S. A. R. il Duca di Spoleto (1929). Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Milano 78: 285-345.

Nylander, W. (1846). Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae. 2:875-944.

Nylander, W. (1849). Additamentum alterum adnotationum in monographiam formicarum borealium. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennica. 3: 25-48.

Özdikmen, H. ( 2010). New names for the preoccupied specific and subspecific epithets in the genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Munis Entomology & Zoology journal. Vol. 5, No. 2: 804-806.

Paknia, O. & Pfeiffer, M. (2011). Steppe versus desert: multi-scale spatial patterns in diversity of ant communities in Iran. Insect Conservation and Diversity. 4: 297–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00136.x.

Pfeiffer, M., Mezger, D. & Dyckmans, J. (2013). Trophic ecology of tropical leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) - a stable isotope study in four types of Bornean rain forest, Myrmecological News. 19: 31–41.

Pisarski, B. (1967). Fourmis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d'Afghanistan récoltées par M. Dr. K. Lindberg. Annales Zoologici. (Warsaw) 24: 375-425.

Radchenko, A. G. & Elmes, G. W. (1998). Taxonomic revision of the ritae species-group of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vestnik. Zoologii. 32(4): 3-27.

Radchenko, A. G. & Elmes, G. W. (1999). Ten new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Vestnik. Zoologii. 33(3): 27-46.

Radchenko, A. G. & Elmes, G.W. (2001). A taxonomic revision of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from the Himalaya (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomologica Basiliensia. 23: 237-276.

Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. (2010). Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.

Ruzsky, M. (1902). Neue Ameisen aus Russland. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere. 17: 469-484.

Santschi, F. (1927). A propos du Tetramorium caespitum L. Folia Myrmecological. Termit. 1: 52-58

Saunders, W. W. (1842). Descriptions of two hymenopterous insects from northern India. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 3: 57-58.

Schödl, S. (1998). Taxonomic revision of Oriental Meranoplus F. Smith, 1853 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B für Botanik und Zoologie. 100: 361-394.

Seifert, B. (1992). A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the ant subgenus Lasius s.str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Abhandlungen und Berichte des naturkundemuseums Görlitz 66(5): 1-67.

Seifert, B. (2003). The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 104 B: 203-338

Seifert, B. (2008). Cardiocondyla atalanta Forel, 1915, a cryptic sister species of Cardiocondyla nuda (Mayr, 1866) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News,11: 43-48.

Seifert, B. & Schultz. R. (2009). A taxonomic revision of the Formica rufibarbis Fabricius, 1793 group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 12: 255-272.

Seifert, B., Okita, I. & Heinze, J. (2017). A taxonomic revision of the Cardiocondyla nuda group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 4290 (2): 324–356. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4290.2.4

Shuckard, W. E. (1840). Monograph of the Dorylidae, a family of the Hymenoptera Heterogyna. (Concluded from p. 271.) Journal of Natural History; 5: 315-328.

Smith, F. (1858). Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 p.

Smith, F. (1878). Scientific results of the Second Yarkand Mission; based upon the collections and notes of the late Ferdinand Stoliczka, Ph.D. Hymenoptera. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing (Government of India), 22 p.

Umair, M. Zia, A., Naeem, M. & Chaudhry, M.T. (2012). Species composition of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Potohar Plateau of Punjab province, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, vol. 44(3): 699-705.

Walker, F. (1859). Characters of some apparently undescribed Ceylon insects. [part]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 3(4): 370-376.

Ward, P. S. (2001). Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the ant genus Tetraponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Oriental and Australian regions. Invertebrate Systematics, 15: 589-665.

Weber, N. A. (1947). A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 40: 437-474.

Westwood, J. O. (1839). An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Volume 2. Part XI. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, 193-224.

Wetterer J. K. (2009). Worldwide spread of the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News, 12:23-33.

Wetterer, J. K. (2012). Worldwide spread of the moorish sneaking ant, Cardiocondyla mauritanica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 59:985-997.

Wilson, E. O. (1955). A monographic revision of the ant genus Lasius. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 113: 1-201.

Yahya, B.E., Yamane, S. & Mohamed, M. (2009). Morphological and Behavioral Characters of the Two Species Groups of the Ant Genus Myrmicaria (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from Southeast Asia. Species Diversity, 14: 249-265.

Yamane, S. (2009). Odontoponera denticulata (F. Smith) (Formicidae: Ponerinae), a distinct species inhabiting disturbed areas. ARI 32 (1-8).

Yasumatsu, K. & Brown Jr, W. L. (1957). A second look at the ants of the Camponotus herculeanus group in eastern Asia. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 11: 45-51.




How to Cite

Rasheed, M. T., Bodlah, I., Gull e Fareen, A., Wachkoo, A. A., Huang, X., & Akbar, S. A. (2019). A Checklist of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Pakistan. Sociobiology, 66(3), 426–439. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v66i3.4330



Research Article - Ants