Fumigant Toxicity of Mentha arviensis Leaves Extracts on Coptotermes heimi, Heterotermes indicola and Their Gut fFlagellates


  • Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi QAU




pest control, termites, gut flagellates, mint plant


The extract of Mentha arviensis (mint) has been found to have considerable application against microbial diseases. The present study is designed to check the insecticidal properties of Mentha arviensis. Crude extract of the leaves of Mentha arviensis was obtained in benzene-ethanol (2:1) solvent using soxhelt apparatus and dried extract was applied (25mg, 50mg and 100 mg) against termite workers, soldiers and their gut flagellates of Coptotermes heimi and Heterotermes indicola. A significant increase in mortality of termite workers, soldiers and their gut flagellates was observed depending upon a lethal dose over time, in both termite species. It, however, took a relatively longer time period to achieve 100% mortality of flagellates than their respective hosts. The dose dependent death of flagellates over time also indicates the mortality of flagellates was found to be associated with fumes originated from the extract of the plants as in starvation, termites and their associated flagellates can survive for three to four days and also their was no mortality of workers and their flagellates, in control. Thus Mentha arviensis extract can be safely used to control termites and other pests.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi, QAU

Biological Sciences/ Animal Sciences/ Parasitology/Entomology

Assistant Professor


Akhtar, Y., Yeoung, R. & M.B. Isman 2008. Comparative bioactivity of selected extracts from Meliaceae and some commercial botanical insecticides against two noctuid caterpillars, Trichoplusiani and Pseudaletia unipuncta. Phytochemistry Reviews 7 (1): 77-88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-006-9048-7

Arakawa. T., Shibita, M., Hosomi, K., Watanabe, T., Honoma, Y., Kawasomi, K. & Y. Takeuchi. 1992. Anti-allergic effects of peppermint oil, chicle and jelutong. Shokueiseishi 33:569-575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.33.569

Bhatnagar, M., Kapur, K.K., Jalees, S. & S.K. Sharma. 1993. Laboratory evaluation of insecticidal properties of Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus and O. sanctum Linnaeus plant’s essential oils and their major constituents against vector mosquito species. Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi) 17(1): 21-26.

Bläske, V.U. & H. Hertel. 2001. Repellent and toxic effects of plant extracts on subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology (94): 1200– 1208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-94.5.1200

Breznak, J.A. 2000. Ecology of prokaryotic microbes in the guts of wood- and litter-feeding termites, In “Termites: evolution, sociality, symbiosis, ecology” Ed by T Abe, DE Bignell, M Higashi, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Pp 209-231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3223-9_10

Brito, A.M. 2007. Avaliaηγo da atividade antileishmanial dos σleos essenciais das plantas Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Mentha arvensis L, e Mentha piperita L. Dissertaηγo do programa de pσs-graduaηγo em Saϊde e Ambiente da Universidade Tiradentes.

Brune, A. 2003. Symbionts aiding digestion, In “Encyclopedia of insects” Ed by R T Cardé and V H Resh, Academic Press, New York, Pp 1102-1107

Cornelius, M.L., Grace, J.K. & J.R. Yates. 1997. Toxicity of monoterpenoids and other natural products to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 90 (2): 320-325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/90.2.320

Deschamps, C., Zanatta, J.L., Roswalka, L., Oliveira, M.C., Bizzo, H.R. & Y. Alquini. 2006. Densidade de tricomas glandulares e produηγo de σleo essencial em Mentha arvensis L, Mentha x piperita L. e Mentha cf. aquatica L. Ciκncia e Natura, UFSM 28:23-34.

Fushiki, S. 1998. Report of the inquiry on termite preventive treatment. Shiroari (Termite) 112: 32-38 (in Japanese).

Gamez, M.J., Jimenez, J., Navarro, C. & A. Zarzuelo. 1990. Study of essential oils of lavendula dentata L Pharmazie 45: 69-70.

Gautam, B.K. & G. Henderson. 2008. Effects of m-tyrosine on feeding and survival of Formosan subterranean termites, (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 11(6): 1088-1083. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746-101.6.1088

Hatlelid, K.M., Bittner, P.M., Midgett, J.D., Thomas, T.A. & L.E. Saltzman. 2004. Exposure and risk assessment for arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) -treated wood playground equipment. J. Child. Health 2: 215–241. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15417060490930056

Hennon, P., Woodward, B.& P. Lebow. 2007. “Deterioration of wood from live and dead Alaska yellow-cedar in contact with soil,” Forest Products Journal 57(6): 23–30.

Honigberg, B.M. 1970. Protozoa associated with termites and their role in digestion. In “Biology of termites” Ed by K.Krishna and F.M. Weesner vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, N.Y. Pp 1-3

Ikeda, W.D., Ohtsubo, M., Stingl, U. & B. Andreas. 2007. Phylogenetic diversity of ‘Endomicrobia’ and their specific affiliation with termite. Microbiology 153: 3458 - 3465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.2007/009217-0

Jamil, K., Shaik, A.P., Mahboob, M. & D.Krishna. 2005. Effect of organ phosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides (Monochrotophos, Chlorpyriphos, Dimethoate, and Endosulfan) on Human Lymphocytes. In‐Vitro Drug and Chem. Toxicol. 27 (2): 133-144(2005). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/DCT-120030725

Japanese Termite Control Association 1998. Memorial publication for the celebration of the 40th anniversary of establishment of the association. 239 pp., JTCA (Tokyo) (in Japanese).

Kurita, N. & S. Koike. 1982. Synergistic antimicrobial effects of sodium chloride and essential oil components. Agri. Boil. Chem 46:159-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00021369.1982.10865032

Lee, S.E., Lee, B.H., Choi, W.S., Park, B.S., Kim, J.G. & B.C. Campbell. 2001. Fumigant Toxicity of volatile natural products from Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L) Pest Mmanag. Sci. 57: 548-553). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.322

Logan, J.W. M., Cowie, R.H. & T.G. Wood 1990. Termite (Isoptera) control in agriculture and forestry by nonchemical methods: a review. Bull Entomol Res 80: 309–330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300050513

Martius, C. 1998. Perspectives for the biological control of termite (insecta, Isoptera) Rev Bras Entomol 41: 179 – 194.

Matias, J.R. 2005. Menthol propyleneglycol carbonate and analogs there of as insect pest repellents. World intellectual property organization. PCT international publication number WO 2005/025313 A1.

Matias, J.R. 2006. Methods of using menthol propyleneglycol carbonate and analogs thereof for producing anti –inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. World intellectual property organization. PCT international publication number WO 2006/034495 A2.

Metcalf, C.L. 1962. Destructive and useful insects. Their habits and control 4th Ed. Revised, New York, McGraw-Hill.

NAN-YAO Su & R.H. Scheffrahn 1998. A review of subterranean termite control practices and prospects for integrated pest management programmes. Integ Pest Manage Rev: 1-13.

Nasciment, E. M. M., Rodrigues, F.F.G., Campos, A.R. & J.G.M. Da Costa. 2009. Phytochemical prospection, toxicity and antimicrobial activity of Mentha arvensis (labiatae) from Northeast of Brazil. Pharmacognosy 1 (3): 210-212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1483.57066

Nunes, L., Nobre, T., Gigante, B. & A.M. Silva. 2004. Toxicity of pine resins derivatives to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Manage Environ Qual An International Journal 15: 521-528. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14777830410553960

Ohkuma, M. 2008. Symbioses of flagellates and prokaryotes in the gut of lower termites. Trends Microbiol. 16:345–352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2008.04.004

Ramos, M. & J.A. Rojas. 2005. Testing methods for improving survival of incipient colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) for laboratory comparisons. Sociobiology 46(2):375 - 384.

Robinson,W.H. 2005. Urban insects and arachnids: A handbook of urban entomology. Cambridge University Press, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511542718

Stingl, U., Maass, A., Radek, R. & A. Brune. 2004. Symbionts of the gut flagellate Staurojoenina sp. from Neotermes cubanus represent a novel, termite-associated lineage of Bacteroidales: description of ‘Candidatus Vestibaculum illigatum’. Microbiology 150: 2229-2235. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.27135-0

Stingl, U., Rade, R.K., Yang, H. & A. Brune. 2005‘Endomicrobia’: cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(3): 1473 – 1479. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.3.1473-1479.2005

Tellez, M.R., Khan,I.A., Kobaisy, M., Schrader, K.K., Dayan, F.E. & W.Osbrink. 2002. “Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp.),” Phytochemistry 61(2) 149–155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00208-X

Tsunoda, K. 2003. Economic importance of Formosan termite and control practices in Japan Sociobiology 41: 27-36.

Vogel, A.I. 1964. A textbook of practical organic chemistry, including qualitative organic analysis. London (Longmans, Green and Co.).

Ward, M.H., Colt, J.S., Metayer, C., Gunier, R.B., Lubin, J. & V. Crouse. 2009. Residential Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Childhood Leukemia. Environ. Health Perspective 117:1007-1013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900583




How to Cite

Qureshi, N. A. (2014). Fumigant Toxicity of Mentha arviensis Leaves Extracts on Coptotermes heimi, Heterotermes indicola and Their Gut fFlagellates. Sociobiology, 59(4), 1509–1519. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v59i4.508