Communication Strategies, ELF and ELT materials


  • Paola Vettorel University of Verona



This paper discusses how Communication Strategies are dealt with in a set of ELT course-books addressed at Italian secondary school students, published by local and international publishers between 1990 and 2015. After presenting CSs as a field of research, their relevance in English as a Lingua Franca communication is illustrated with reference to existing research in the field. The research design and findings from the study are then presented, and examples from the data are provided. It is shown how, apart from a few cases, CSs are not dealt with consistently in the ELT course-books under examination, and the current lingua franca role English increasingly retains not represented. Recommendations for future research and implications for pedagogic practices are also set forward.


Não há dados estatísticos.


Carregando Métricas ...


BATZIAKAS, B. Communicative practices in English as a lingua franca interactions: some examples from Asian university students in London. Asian Englishes, n.19, v.1, p. 44-56, 2017.

BJØRGE, A. K. Conflict or cooperation: The use of backchannelling in ELF negotiation. English for Specific Purposes, v. 29, n.3, p. 191-203, 2010.

BJÖRKMAN, B. Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic Lingua Franca: ways of achieving communicative effectiveness?. Journal of Pragmatics, v. 43, n. 4, p. 950-964, 2011.

BJÖRKMAN, B. An analysis of polyadic English as a lingua franca (ELF) speech; a communicative strategies framework. Journal of Pragmatics, v. 66, p. 122-138, 2014.

BIALYSTOK, E. Communication strategies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

CANALE, M. From Communicative competence to communicative language teaching. In: RICHARDS, J.C.; SCHMIDT, R.W. (Eds.). Language and communication. London: Longman, 1983. p. 2-27.

CANALE, M., SWAIN, M. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, v. 1, p. 1-47, 1980.

CELCE-MURCIA, M., DÖRNYEI, Z., THURREL, S. Communicative Competence: a pedagogically motivated model with context specification. Issues in Applied Linguistics, v. 6, n. 2, p. 5-35, 1995.

COGO, A. Accommodating difference in ELF conversations: a study of pragmatic strategies. In: MAURANEN, A.; RANTA, E. (Eds.). English as a Lingua Franca: studies and findings.. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. p. 254-273.

COGO, A. Strategic use and perceptions of English as a lingua franca. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, v. 46, n. 3. p. 295-312, 2010.

COGO, A. ELF and Super-diversity: a case study of ELF: Multilingual practices from a business context. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, v. 1, n. 2, p. 287–313, 2012.

COGO, A. ‘They all take the risk and make the effort’: Intercultural accommodation and multilingualism in a BELF community of practice. In: LOPRIORE, L; GRAZZI, E. (Eds.). Intercultural communication. New perspectives from ELF. Rome: Roma TrE-Press, 2016. p. 365-383.

COGO, A., DEWEY, M. Analysing English as a lingua franca. London/New York: Continuum, 2012.

COGO, A., PITZL, M.-L. Pre-empting and signalling non-understanding in ELF. ELT Journal, v. 70, n. 3, p. 339-345, 2016.

COHEN, A.D., MACARO, E. (Eds.). Language learner strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007.

DÖRNYEI, Z. On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, v. 29, n. 1, p. 55-85, 1995.

DÖRNYEI, Z., SCOTT, M. L. Communication strategies in a second language: definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, v. 47, n. 1, p. 173-210, 1997.

DÖRNYEI, Z., THURREL, S. Strategic competence and how to teach it. ELT Journal, v. 45, n.1, p. 16-23, 1991,

DÖRNYEI, Z., THURREL, S. Teaching conversational skills intensively: course content and rationale. ELT Journal, v. 48, n. 1, p. 40-49, 1994;

ELLIS, R. Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

ELLIS, R. The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008 (2nd edn.).

FAUCETTE, P. A pedagogical perspective on communication strategies: benefits of training and an analysis of English language teaching materials. Second Language Studies, v. 19, n. 2, p. 1-40, 2001.

FIRTH, A., WAGNER, J. On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concept in SLA research. The Modern Language Journal, v. 91, p. 757-772, [1997] 2007.

FRANCESCHI, V. Plurilingual resources as an asset in ELF business interactions. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, v. 6, n. 1, p. 57–81, 2017.

JAFARI, J. Communication strategies in English as a Lingua Franca interactions: a study of University Students. Presentation given at ELF9 Conference, Lleida, 27-29 June 2016.

JAFARI, J. Communication strategies among ELF interlocutors in international contexts: a study of university students, presentation given at ELF10 Conference ELF & Changing English, Helsinki, 12-15 June 2017.

JENKINS, J. Repositioning English and multilingualism in English as a lingua franca. Englishes in Practice, v. 2, n. 3, p. 49-85, 2015.

JOKIĆ, N. Did we get our wires crossed? The analysis of communication strategies among Erasmus students. Presentation given at ELF9 Conference, Lleida, 27-29 June 2016.

KALOCSAI, K. Communities of practice and English as a Lingua Franca. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013.

KAUR, J. English as a Lingua Franca: Co-constructing understanding. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag, 2009.

KELLERMAN, E. Compensatory strategies in second language research: a critique, a revision, and some (non-)implications for the classroom. In PHILLIPSON, R.; KELLERMAN, E.; SELINKER, L.; SHARWOOD SMITH, M.; SWAIN, M. (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1991, p. 142-161.

KIM, Y. Communication strategies in seventh grade English textbooks. English Teaching, v. 65, n. 1, p. 113-136, 2010.

KIRKPATRIK, A. The communicative strategies of ASEAN speakers of English as a lingua franca. In: PRESCOTT, D. (Ed.), English in southeast Asia: Varieties, literacies and literatures. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2007. p. 118-137.

KLIMPFINGER, T. 2007. Mind you sometimes you have to mix – the role of codeswitching in English as a lingua franca. Vienna English Working PaperS, v. 16, n. 2, p. 36-61, 2007.

KLIMPFINGER, T. 2009. “She’s mixing the two languages together“ – Forms and functions of Code-switching in English as a Lingua Franca. In: MAURANEN, A.; RANTA, E. (Eds.), English as a lingua franca: studies and findings. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2009. p. 349-371.

KOHN, K. 2016. Teaching towards ELF competence. In: TSANTILA, N.; MANDALIOS, J.; ILKOS, M. (Eds.). ELF: Pedagogical and interdisciplinary perspectives. Athens: Deree-The American College of Greece, 2016. p. 25-32.

KONAKAHARA, M. Reconsideration of communication strategies from an English as a lingua franca perspective. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education of Waseda University, v. 20, n. 1, 2012, p. 201-216.

LEUNG, C. Convivial communication: recontextualizing communicative competence. International Journal of Applied Linguistics v. 15, n. 2, p. 119-144, 2005.

LOPRIORE, L., VETTOREL, P. Perspectives in WE and ELF-oriented ELT materials in teacher education. In SIFAKIS, N.; TSANTILA, N. (Eds.), ELF4ELF. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, forthcoming.

MAURANEN, A. Signalling and preventing misunderstanding in English as a lingua franca communication. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, v. 177, p. 123-150, 2006.

MARIANI, L. Communication strategies. Milan: Tante Vie per Imparare, 2010.

MAURANEN, A. 2007. Hybrid voices: English as the lingua franca of academics. In: FLOTTUM, K. (Ed.). Language and discipline perspectives on Academic Discourse. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2007. p. 243-259.

MAURANEN, A. Exploring ELF. Academic English shaped by non-native speakers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

MCCONACHY, T., HATA, K.. Addressing textbook representations of pragmatics and culture. ELT Journal , v. 67, n. 3, p. 294-301, 2013.

MEIHAMI, H., KHANLARZADEH, M. Pragmatic content in global and local ELT textbooks: a micro analysis study. SAGE Open, p. 1-10, 2015.

OLLINGER, A. The good ELF user: a qualitative meta-analysis of strategic language use behaviours in English as a Lingua Franca. Masterarbeit, University of Vienna, 2012.

O’ MALLEY, J.M., CHAMOT, A.U. Learning strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

OXFORD, R. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House, 1990.

PITZL, M.-L. English as a lingua franca in international business. Resolving miscommunication and reaching shared understanding. Saarbrücken: VDM-Verlag Müller, 2010.

PITZL, M.-L. Creativity and re-metaphorised idioms in spoken ELF interactions. Presentation given at the English as a Lingua Franca International Symposium, Sapienza University, Rome, 6-7 April 2017.

RAMPTON, B. A sociolinguistic perspective on communication strategies. In: KASPER, G.; KELLERMAN, E. (Eds.). Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives, 279-303. London/New York: Longman, 1997. p. 279-303.

REN, W., HAN Z. The representation of pragmatic knowledge in recent ELT textbooks. ELT Journal, v. 70, n. 4, p. 424-434, 2016.

RICHARDS, J. The role of textbooks in a language program. New Routes, v. 17, p 26-30, 2002. São Paulo: DISAL.

SAVIGNON, S. Communicative competence: an experiment in foreign language teaching. Philadelphia: Center for Curriculum Development, 1972.

SAVIGNON, S. Communicative competence. Theory and practice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997 (2nd edn).

SEIDLHOFER, B. Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, v. 24, p. 209-239, 2004.

SEIDLHOFER, B. Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

SEIDLHOFER B. English as a Lingua Franca and multilingualism. In: CENOZ, J.; GORTER, D.; MAY, S. (Eds.). Language awareness and multilingualism, Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Cham: Springer, 2015. p. 1-14.

SIQUEIRA, D. S. P. English as a Lingua Franca and ELT materials: is the ‘plastic world’ really melting? In: BAYYURT, Y.; AKCAN, S. (Eds.). Current perspectives on pedagogy for English as a Lingua Franca. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015. p. 239-258.

TARONE, E. Communication strategies, foreigner talk and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, v. 30, n. 2, p. 417-431, 1980.

TARONE, E. Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, v. 15, n. 3, p. 285-295, 1981.

TARONE, E. (1984). Teaching strategic competence in the foreign language classroom. In: SAVIGNON, S.; BERNS, M. (Eds.), Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1984. p. 127-136.

TARONE, E. 2016, Learner language in ELF and SLA. In: PITZL, M.-L.; OSIMK-TEASDALE, R. (Eds.) English as a Lingua Franca: Perspectives and prospects. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 217-225.

TARONE, E., YULE, G. Focus on the Language Learner. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

VETTOREL, P. Strategie comunicative, plurilinguismo e ELF. Lend Lingua e Nuova Didattica, Anno XXXIX, v.3. p. 13-23, 2010.

VETTOREL, P. Communication Strategies and co-construction of meaning in ELF Communication: drawing on ‘Multilingual Resource Pools’, presentation given at ELF10 Conference ELF & Changing English, Helsinki, 12-15 June 2017.

VETTOREL, P. ELF and communication strategies: are they taken into account in ELT materials? RELC Special Issue on ‘Teaching English as an International Language (TEIL): realistic or idealistic?, guest Ed. MARLINA, R., in preparation.

VETTOREL, P., LOPRIORE, L. Is there ELF in ELT course-books? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching , v. 4, n. 3, p. 483-504, 2013.

WAGNER, J., FIRTH, A. Communication strategies at work. In: KASPER, G.; KELLERMAN, E. (Eds.) Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. London/New York: Longman, 1997. p. 322-344.

WATTERSON, M. Repair of non-understanding in English in international communication. World Englishes, v. 27, n. 3, p. 378-406, 2008.

WIDDOWSON H. Learning purpose and language use. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

WIDDOWSON, H. Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

WIDDOWSON, H. Afterword. Frontiers of English and the challenge of change. In VETTOREL, P. (Ed.) New Frontiers in teaching and learning English, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, p. 227-232.

YOSHIDA, K. The fish bowl, open seas, and international English. In Expanding Horizons: Techniques and Technology in ELT. Proceedings of the 12th Annual KOTESOL International Conference, Seoul: Korea TESOL, 2004, p. 11–20.

YU, M. H. Developing critical classroom practice for ELF communication: a Taiwanese case study of ELT materials evaluation. In: BOWLES, H.; COGO, A. (Eds.). International perspectives on English as a Lingua Franca. Pedagogical insights. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 35-54.




Como Citar

Vettorel, P. (2018). Communication Strategies, ELF and ELT materials. A Cor Das Letras, 18(Especial), 74–98.